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 Bosansko vještičarstvo

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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Fri Jul 26, 2013 8:23 am

Vile su najkraće rečeno antički duhovi prirode ili personifikacija njenih snaga. O njima su znali još stari Iliri, Rimljani, Grci... Vjerovanje u vile nailazimo duž cijele Europe ali i Bliskog istoka. U Iranu i Turskoj vile se nazivaju periler i imaju identične funkcije i opise kao i u europskoj tradiciji. Opisuju se kao vječito mlade djevojke, izvanredne ljepote, sa dugom crvenom ili zlatnom kosom. Veliki dio vila posjeduje i krila. Vjerovanje u vile također je najbolji očuvani dio starog kulta vještičarstva jer sve one odlike koje je narod prepisivao tim bićima odlike su Velike Majke - plodnost, umijeće magije, iscjelivanja, ljepota, erotičnost...

Prema bosanskoj mitologiji vile se rađaju iz rose koja pada po lišću velikog stabla koje raste na tajanstvenom, nepoznatom brdu. Posjeduju magijske moći koje mogu upotrebljavati za dobre i loše svrhe o čemu svjedoče brojni događaji opjevani u narodnim pjesmama gdje se opisuje kako su vile pojedinim junacima poput Alije Đerzeleza, Muje Hrnjice ili Halila postajale majke, sestre ili ljubavnice. Ako bi se prema budućem velikom ratniku ponijela majčinski vila bi ga darovala velikom fizičkom snagom i inteligencijom a ukoliko je taj odnos bio sličan odnosu brata i sestre tada bi mu liječila svaku ranu zadobijenu u bitkama čarolijama i ljekovitim biljkama ili ga obavještavala o planovima neprijatelja. U slučaju da se vila zaljubi u junaka onda bi mu postajala ljubavnicom i majkom budućeg djeteta koje bi nakon porođaja ostavljala ocu i vraćala se svojim sestrama vilama u prirodu.

Upravo ovo vjerovanje o ostavljenoj vilinskoj djeci rezultiralo je nastankom jedne humane prakse zbrinjavanja siročadi koja je spasila od sigurne smrti na hiljade ostavljene djece u najranijoj životnoj dobi. Naime, bosanski narod je vjerovao kako su ostavljena djeca nakon porođaja zapravo dijete neke vile te su ga vrlo rado usvajali i odgajali kao svoje vlastito. Vjerovalo se da ta djeca donose sreću i blagostanje familiji koja je od tada pod zaštitom vile. Kako u prošlim vijekovima u BiH nije bilo sirotišta ili neke druge državne ustanove koja bi preuzela brigu o napuštenoj djeci ovo vjerovanje je uvelike pomoglo u zbrinjavanju mnoge siročadi koje su neodgovorni roditelji ostavljali u šumi ili na ulici.

Kako smo već rekli vile su se posebno interesovale za bosanske junake, pomagale im u borbi, liječile im rane, tugovale za njima, postajale im ljubavnice i majke njihove djece a nekada i sestre. No, iz prethodnog dijela teksta vidimo da vile nisu isključivo pomagale samo narodnim junacima već i običnim ljudima, posebno djeci. Njihova se pomoć izuzetno cjenila kod naroda o čemu svjedoče i mnoge epske pjesme poput one iz Jablanice pod naslovom „Halil traži Mujinog konja Đogata“ u kojoj je od 347 stihova 41 stih posvećen vilinom sudjelovanju u ulozi pomoćnice. Njihova specijalnost osim magije jeste i liječenje biljem. Smatra se da su većinu znanja o ljekovitim svojstvima biljaka ljudi stekli zahvaljujući intervenciji upravo ovih bića. U jednoj pjesmi se govori kako majka Omera Hrnjice po savjetu vile nalazi biljku kunicu (Achillea millefolium L.) i cijedi njen sok iznad rane svog sina i zamotava je platnom.

„I sok cidi iz kunice trave,

Sok uliva, rane zamotava.“

U narodnim pjesmama ranjenog Muju Hrnjicu liječe vile koje žive u planinama i šumama. Osim na taj način vile u namjeri da pomognu najvećem bosanskom junaku izvode različite čarolije poput one da njegov konj Đogat dobije krila i pobjedi u svakoj utrci.

Vile najčešće obitavaju po planinama i velikim šumama te oko jezera. Najviše vremena provode u letenju sa drveta na drvo, kupanju, češljanju kose i igranju kola. Kosa u kojoj leži sva vilina moć dosta puta se prema narodnim pričama pokazala velikom opasnošću za samu vilu jer se znalo dogoditi da joj se ona zapetlja u neki grm te da ona tako svojom nespretnošću postajala lak plijen za slučajnog prolaznika. Navodno, ko bi god pomogao vili da iščupa kosu iz grma mogao je od vile tražiti da mu pomogne u nečem ili čak postane supruga. Niti jednu želju nije smjela odbiti. Vile, posebno one koje obitavaju po planinama i šumama, su jako zaljubljive naravi. Postoji na desetine priča u kojima se neka vila zaljubila u određenog muškarca te ga kindapovala i sa njim živjela po nekoliko godina u nekoj šumi ili pećini.

Za razliku od njih vodene vile su neprijateljski raspoložene prema ljudima. One obitavaju pored izvora, rijeka, jezera ili mora. Skoro svo vrijeme provode u kupanju i zabavljaju se tako da svojom pjesmom opčine onog koga žele udaviti u vodi. Zbog toga narod je svaki put kada bi se noću približio rijeci ili potoku sa sobom nosio nekoliko žeravica sa ognjišta kako bi se na taj način zaštitio od njih.

U pojedinim narodnim pričama Mujo Hrnjica i Alija Đerzelez su braća mada to u stvarnom životu nisu bili. Pretpostavka je da se ideja za pojmom braće upravo stvorila na informaciji kako je obojicu velikih bosanskih junaka svojim mlijekom nahranila vila pa se zbog toga postala „braća po mlijeku“. Prema bosanskom vjerovanju ukoliko majka izgubi mlijeko pa druga žena podoji njeno dijete ta žena se smatra njegovom drugom majkom ili „majkom po mlijeku“ i tom djetetu i djeci te žene zabranjeno je da između sebe sklope brak.

U narodnoj pjesmi o Muji i Aliji navodi se kako su oni išli u lov te nakon njega sjeli pored jezera da se odmore i na kraju zaspali. Za to vrijeme posmatrale su ih tri bijele vile ljute zbog toga što su ubili nekoliko ptica. Najstarija od njih ponudi drugim dvjema stotinu dukata koja uspije zavaditi Muju i Aliju. Najmlađa vila pojavi se pored zaspalog Muje i zaplače. Njen plač probudi Muju koji pored sebe ugleda predivnu mladu djevojku. On odmah probudi brata Aliju koji umjesto jedne vidi dvije djevojke i ljutito govori kako nije pošteno da on ima tako dvije krasne djevojke a on niti jednu. Tu se posvadiše te Mujo izvuče nož i probode brata. Zatim djevojku vilu postavi na bratova konja a on sjede na svog i krenuše kući. Putem Mujo ugleda crnu vranu bez desnog krila pa je začuđeno upita kako ona živi bez desnog krila na što mu ona odgovori da živi kao brat koji brata nema. Te riječi ražalostiše Muju i on se pokaja što je ranio brata a djevojka vila mu reče da se brzo vrate jer ona je nekada liječila bolesne pa će tako izlječiti i Aliju. No, kada se vratiše brat već bude mrtav te se Mujo od velike tuge sam kazni smrću.

Međutim ni vodene vile nisu nedodirljive te im im njihova vječita potreba za kupanjem može dovesti u opasnu situaciju. Naime, ukoliko ih neki muškarac opazi dok se kupaju može se tiho prišunjati i ukrasti nekoj od njih odjeću. Po vjerovanju vila čiju odjeću muškarac ukrade mora se udati za njega. U etnografskim knjigama ostalo si zabilježeni slučajevi kako su se vile redovito sastajale na Vilenici u selu Seoce pored Visokog. Navodno su pojedini mladići uspjeli ukrasti njihovu odjeću te su se neke vile i udale za njih. Pošto su one besmrtne nakon smrti muža vila bi postajala slobodna i vraćala bi se u prirodu.

Sva vilina moć nalazi se u njenoj kosi koju one njeguju do savršenstva. Dok se češljaju vile pjevaju i tom prilikom izgovaraju zagonetne stihove u kojima se krije puno mudrosti. Kosu koja im otpadne prilikom češljanja obavijaju oko paprati (Pteridophyta). Naročito vole noću obilaziti konje sa bujnom grivom i plesti im sitne pletenice koje teško koji čovjek da može rasplesti. Takvi konji smatrali su se posebnim jer su ih dodirivale vile.

Ukoliko se vile naročito brinu za nekog čovjeka, to znači da ovaj u sebi nosi neku dublju vezu sa njihovim svijetom. Takve će se osobe isticati u životu prosvjetiteljskom mudrošću. Biti miljenik vila, tojest ako je plemenit i dopadne im se, znači imati sposobnost čuti njihovu pjesmu ili čak razaznati njihove zagonentne stihove u glasanju vjetra. Takav čovjek cjenit će istinu jer su mnoge vile čuvari istine i tjeraju laž. Međutim, desi li se susret vile i nekog zlonamjernog čovjeka onda ta osoba riskira da psihički oboli.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Fri Jul 26, 2013 8:24 am

Bosanska mitologija navodi brojne nazive vile od kojih su najpoznatije ova imena: Bosanska vila, vila kraljica Zlatna, Crvena vila, Gorska vila, vila Planinka (vila planine), itd. Pojedine vile nazivaju se i karakterističnim imenima poput Gope, Gospa, Srebra, Bilka, etc.
Crvena vila: ona se uglavnom pojavljuje u vremenu oko zalaska sunca. Sjedi na nekom prolazu ili pored puta češljajući svoju dugu crvenu kosu. Onom ko je susretne može nauditi tako što zamahne kosom u njegovom pravcu i udari ga njome. Od tog udarca čovjek postane bolestan a zna se desiti i da padne u komu. Njen simbol je crvena boja.
Bosanska vila: ona je djevojka zlatne kose i bujnih grudi. Obučena je u dugu bijelu haljinu čiji su rubovi prošiveni zlatnim koncem. U kosi joj se nalazi cvijeće ljiljana. Tijelo joj krase i velika krila sa kojima prema legendi leti zrakom i prelijeće Bosnu u svim smjerovima. Bosanska vila ima izrazito umiljat glas i često pjeva. Po naravi spada u dobronamjerne vile. Često se nalazi u društvu drugi vila koje su na nižem rangu od nje. Njen simbol je cvijet ljiljan.
Kraljica vila Zlatna: ona je gospodarica svih bosanskih vila. Obitava u velikim i gustim šumama i uvijek se kreće u društvu svojih podanica. Noću, posebno za vrijeme punog mjeseca, izlazi iz šume i kupa se na jezeru ili u rijeci. Ima zlatna krila i krunu na glavi. Poslije kupanja zajedno sa drugim vilama igra i pjeva na nekom brežuljku sve do oglašavanja prvih pijetlova u zoru. Njen simbol je pun Mjesec.
Gorska vila: ona je među najstarijim vilama i često se naziva majkom vila. Smatra se da je vila Zlatna njena kćerka koja ju je nasljedila. Gorska vila je među bosanskim narodom najviše upamćena po tome što je zaslužna za to što je Mujo Hrnjica postao najveći junak Bosne i Hercegovine. Po naravi je blaga, mudra je i ima umiljat glas. Nju bosanske stravarke pozivaju u pomoć pri liječenju oslovljavajući je riječima „majko, sestro“. Njen simbol je zlatna jabuka.
Planinka: ona je vila koja ima vjenac cvijeća upleten u kosi. Nosi dugu haljinu i ponekad drži u ruci štap koji joj služi za hodanje. Ima moć transformacije pa se često pretvori u kozu kako bi lakše prolazila strmim dijelovima planine. Poznaje sve tajne biljaka i liječenja. Sa njom su se najviše susretali pastiri kojima je priskakala u pomoć kada bi to zatrebalo. Njen simbol je bijela koza.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Wed Jul 31, 2013 10:35 pm




http://www.scribd.com/doc/164707097/The-Little-Witch-Book


Aradia: komentar modifikovan dana: Mon Sep 02, 2013 12:14 am; prepravljeno ukupno 1 puta
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Tue Aug 13, 2013 2:49 pm

Faeries are in a nutshell ancient ghosts of nature or personifications of their strengths. They were known to the old Illyrians, Romans, Greeks... The belief in faeries is found along the entire Europe but also of Middle East. In Iran and Turkey the faeries are called periler and have identical functions and descriptions like the ones in the European tradition. They are described as eternally young girls of stunning beauty, with long red and golden hair. A large number of faeries has wings.

According to Bosnian mythology the faeries are born out of dew which falls on the leaves of the great tree which grows on a mysterious, unknown hill. It has magical powers which can be used for good and bad which is witnessed by numerous events sung in folk songs where it is described that faeries became to certain heroes, such as Alija Đerzelez, Mujo Hrnjica or Halil, mothers, sisters or lovers. If a faery took on a motherly role towards the hero, she would grant him enormous strength and intelligence, but if the relationship was that of siblings, they would heal all wounds that the hero received during battles with herbs and magic or the faery would tell him all about the enemy's plans. If the faery falls in love with the hero then she would become his lover and the mother of his future child which she would leave with the father after birth and she would go back to her faeries in the nature.

It is this belief about the abandoned faery children resulted with the birth of a humane practice of taking care of orphans which saved thousands of children abandoned at an early age, from a certain death. Namely, the Bosnian folk believed that abandoned children after birth were children from a faery and that's why it was gladly taken in and raised as their own. It was believed that those children brought good fortune and bliss to the family which was from then on protected by the faery. In the past BIH didn't have an orphanage or another government institution which would take care of abandoned children, this belief largely helped in taking care of countless orphans which were abandoned in forests or streets by irresponsible parents.

As we already mentioned the faeries took great interest in Bosnian heroes, they helped them in combat, healed their wounds, grieved for them, became their lovers and mothers of their children and sometimes sisters. However, from the preceding text we can see that faeries didn't only help folk heroes but also common people, especially children. Their help was particularly valued by the people which can be seen by numerous epic poems like the one from Jablanica called "Halil searching for Mujo's horse Đogat" in which out of 347 verses, 41 of them were dedicated to the faeries participation as a helper. Their specialty, besides magic is healing with the help of herbs. It is considered that most of the knowledge about medicinal properties of plants the humans gained thanks to the intervention of these beings. In one poem how the mother of Omer Hrnjica following the advice of a faery finds the plant kunica (Achillea millefolium L.) and drains its juices above her son's wound and covers it with cloth. In folk songs the wounded Mujo Hrnjica is being healed by faeries which live in forests and mountains. Besides such a way the faeries, wanting to help the greatest hero of Bosnia, perform various spells such as the one that gave his horse Đogat wings and helped him win every race.

The faeries usually live on mountains and large forests near lakes. They spend most of their time flying from tree to tree, bathing, combing hair and dancing in circles. The hair which contains all of the faeries power was often depicted in folk stories as a great danger to the faery itself since it could get tangled in a bush and she became an easy prey to passers-by. Apparently, whosoever helped a faery untangle her hair from a bush could ask the faery to help him with something or to even become his wife. She couldn't reject any wish. Faeries, especially the ones living in mountains or forests, easily fall in love. There are dozens of stories in which a faery fell in love with a man and then kidnapped him and lived for several years in a cave or forest with him.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Tue Aug 13, 2013 2:49 pm

Evil faeries

Unlike them, the water faeries are hostile towards humans. They reside next to sources of rivers, streams or seas. They spend almost all of their time bathing and they have fun by enchanting with their song the one that they want to drown. That's why people carried ember with them when they would approach a river or creek during the night in order to protect themselves from the faeries.

In a few folk tales about Mujo Hrnjica and Alija Đerzelez, they are depicted as brothers even though in real life they weren't brothers. We hypothesise that the idea about them being brothers was created based on the information that both of these Bosnian heroes were fed by the milk of the same faery, they are considered "foster brothers". According to Bosnian belief if a mother loses her milk and another woman breastfeeds her child that woman is considered to be his other mother or "foster mother" and it's forbidden for that child and children of that woman to get married.

In a folk song about Mujo and Alija it is mentioned how they went hunting birds from the family of ducks known as utve zlatokrile (Tadoma ferriginea) which are, as mythology claims, the form in which faeries like to transform into. After they finished with the hunt they sat down next to the lake to rest and they eventually fell asleep. During that time they were observed by three white faeries which were angry since they killed a few of their favourite birds. The oldest one of them offered to the others hundred ducats if they manage to alienate the two of them. The youngest faery appeared next to Mujo and started to cry. Her cry woke up Mujo who saw a beautiful young girl next to him. He immediately woke up his brother Alija saw instead of one, two beautiful girls and he answered angrily that it's not fair that he has two beautiful girls and he has none. They got into a fight and Mujo pulled out a knife and stabbed his brother. Then he placed the girl on the brother's horse and he mounted his horse and they rode home. Along the way Mujo saw a black crow without her right wing and he asked her how she lived without her right wing to which the crow replied that she lives like a brother that has no brother. Those words saddened Mujo and he felt sorry for wounding his brother and the faery told him to hurry back since she used to heal the sik and she would heal his brother. However, when they returned his brother was already dead and Mujo punished himself with death.

However water faeries are not untouchable and their constant need for bathing can lead them into dangerous situations. Namely, if a man spots them bathing he can sneak and steal their clothes. According to belief the faery whose clothes is stolen by a man she needs to marry him. In ethnographic books there are records that faeries often met with elf's in a village Seoce near Visoko. Apparently some young men managed to steal their clothes and some faeries married them. Since they are immortal after the death they became free and they would return into nature.

All of the faeries powers are located in her hair which they nurture until perfection. While they are combing their hair the faeries sing and during that they utter mysterious verses which are full of wisdom. The hair that falls off during combing is wrapped around fern (Pteridophyta). They especially like to visit horses that have a lush mane and they like to knit tiny braids which are hard to undo. Such horses are considered to be special because they have been touched by faeries.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Fri Aug 23, 2013 1:04 am

Fairies of Bosnian mythology

If some faeries take particular care of a human, that then means that he carries a deeper connection to their world. Such persons shall stand out in life with enlightened wisdom. To be the favourite of the faeries, that is if he is noble and the faeries like him, means that one has the ability to hear their song or even distinguish their mysterious verses heard through the wind. Such a man will appreciate the truth since most faeries are guardians of truth and they drive away lies. However, if an encounter of a faery and a bad person takes place, that person is then risking mental illness.

Bosnian mythology enumerates many names for faeries, the most famous ones are: Bosnian faery, faery queen Golden, Red faery, Forest faery, faery of the mountains (mountain faery), Black faery, water faery etc. Certain faeries have characteristic names such as Gope, Gospa, Srebra, Bilka, etc.

Red faery: she usually appears around sunset. They usually sit in an alley or next to a road combing her long red hair. The one who meets her can be harmed when she swings her hair in his direction and hits him with it. A man becomes sick from that blow and sometimes they can fall into a coma. Her symbol is the colour red.

Bosnian faery: she is a girl with golden hair and luscious bosom. She wears a long white gown whose edges are sown through with a golden thread. In her hair there is a flower of lily. Her body is adorned with large wings which she uses, according to legend, to fly through the air and fly over Bosnia in all directions. Bosnian faery has a mellifluous voice and she sings often. By nature she falls within the benevolent kind. She can often be found in the company of other faeries which are of a lower rank than her. Her symbol is the flower lily (Lilium bosniacum).

Faery queen Golden: she is the mistress of all Bosnian faeries. She lives in large thick forests and always moves in the company of her subjects. At night, especially during a full moon, she exits the forests and bathes in a river or pond. She has golden wings and a crown on her head. After her bath she sings and plays with the other faeries on some mound until the first rooster sounds at dawn. Her symbol is a full moon.

Forest faery: she is among the oldest faeries and she is often called the mother of faeries. It is considered that Golden faery is her daughter which inherited her. Forest faery is the one which is most remembered among the Bosnian folk because she was the reason that Mujo Hrnjica became the biggest hero of Bosnia and Herzegovina. She is meek and wise by nature and she has a mellifluous voice. The Bosnian witches (stravarka) call them for aid during healing rituals addressing them with words "mother, sister". Her symbol is a golden apple.

Mountain faery: she is a faery that has a garland of flowers in her hair. She wears a long dress and sometimes she holds a walking stick in her hand. She has the ability to transform and she often transforms into a goat for easier passage along the steep hillside. She is familiar with all of the secrets of the plants and healing. Herdsmen often encounter her, and she helps them if there is a need for it. Her symbol is a white goat.

Black faery: she is also called which-faery since she appears in the form of a dark shadow especially around the time of holidays Beltaine (May) and Samhaina (October-November). Sometimes they appear after sunset but more often at nights with moonlight. She appears suddenly and disappears quickly. From all of the faeries the black faery doesn't speak much nor does she sing. Her symbol is black colour.

Water faery: she is the guardian of all springs and it is believed that humans can suddenly fall ill if he walks next to a spring during night or if he accidentally disturbs a faery that is bathing. That's why there was a folk custom to great the spring with these words "Selam alejk, water and waters guardians!" Showing respect towards the faery the humans tried to protect themselves from their rage. All water faeries are by nature egoistic and vengeful. They usually hate men and they are always trying to trick them and drown them in the water while they are more merciful towards the women and they sometimes help them. The symbol of a water faery is a silver coin.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Fri Aug 23, 2013 1:04 am

Faeries and magic

It's not impossible to see faeries. Sometimes meeting them can be a spontaneous and sudden event caused by a magical ritual. There are two reasons that can cause to be accidentally visible to humans. The first one is that nature ghosts, in certain circumstances, thicken their fluid form in such a way that it becomes visible to those humans who are sensible enough. As a second possibility comes the one by which man, due to his accessibility or particular psychological state, caused by occult techniques or spontaneity, becomes sensitive to various vibrations.

If you would like to see or hear sky faeries I recommend that you try it somewhere in nature, early in the morning, because according to mythology that is the time when "faeries born during the red dawn" appear, whose appearance is usually the most fascinating. All you need to do is to be open and focused. To help you see the faery in the sky, you can repeat the magical formula "Paralada" which enables you to see them. You will recognize them by the white and golden dresses and long hair in which all of their power is contained, according to mythology. Sky faeries can also be seen in a forest, especially near an old oak tree, or on the back of a deer or some other animal.

Water faeries, which often serve as muses to humans, can be seen near lakes, rivers or creeks. To call forth their forms you should repeat the formula "Nixa" out loud which stimulates clairvoyance in terms of the water element.

The belief in faeries is not only a part of the Bosnian folklore but also of the magical tradition. As the stories about faeries are the best kept part of the ancient occult of the Grand-mother in which fertility, motherhood, love and magic intertwine, i.e. the entire concept of ancient witchcraft was preserved in the practice of many rituals and beliefs. Some of them were practiced until the middle of the past century among the Bosnian women, especially the elderly women.

If child was struck by a negative influence of spellbound eyes and as a result cries often without any visible cause, it has a fever, is sleepless or loses appetite the mother will, at dusk, when the faeries gather around to dance, take the child in her hands and rock it in the direction of west and repeat:

The faeries are calling me to a wedding,
I'm not going nor am I sending my child,
but I'm sending my son's (or daughter's) tears.


Sometimes faeries can attack people and during it they throw vilenine on him, a disease which is manifested in mental issues, fear, unrest, insomnia, headache, etc. To cure himself from such an unnatural disease, the diseased must sit on the floor and one of the members of the household holds a metal dish above his head which holds fire created out of spruce branches. Seven grains of salt are thrown in the fire twenty one times. It is believed that the crackling of the salt in the fire and the smoke of spruce branches will annul the effect of vilenina.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Sun Sep 01, 2013 10:04 pm

Kada se iscrtava zaštitni krug na zemlji onda se to čini sa magijskim štapom koji treba da ima svaka vještica. Njime se u smjeru kazaljke na satu iscrtava krug. Kada se krug iscrta onda se kaže: "Iscrtala sam te i posvetila, magijski krugu zaštite, kako bi me zaštitio od bilo kakvog napada i opasnosti pri ovom susretu ljudskog i onostranog svijeta, posvetila sam te u ime Vidasusa i Thane!

Vidasus i Thana su kod Ilirski plemena Bosne bili glavna božanstva prirode poznata u antičkom svijetu kao Pan i Dijana ili Cernunnos i Aradia. U pitanju su muški i ženski princip na kojima počiva cjelokupna priroda i svijet. Ako prizivate neku od bosanskih vila onda se uvijek pozovite na vilinsku kraljicu i vilu majku pod čijim su patronatom sve druge vile. Njih dvije su zapravo antičke boginja mjeseca i boginja zemlje pa zbog toga nakon što nacrtate magijski krug oko sebe prvo dlanovima dodirnite zemlju a onda ih podignite u pravcu punog Mjeseca govoreći: "Božanska majko zemlje, božanska majko neba - blagoslovite me". Onda dlanovima pređite niz lice, grudi pa sve do bedara.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Fri Sep 13, 2013 10:56 pm

When one draws a protective circle on the ground it is done so with a magical wand which every witch needs to have. It is used to draw a circle in a clockwise direction. When the circle is drawn the following is uttered: "I drew you and dedicated you, o magical circle of protection, in order to protect me from any type of attack and danger during an encounter of this human and the other world, I dedicated you in the name of Vidasus and Thane!

Vidasus and Thane were among the Illyrian tribes of Bosnia the main deities of nature known among the ancient world as Pan and Diana or Cernunnos and Aradia. We're talking about the male and female principles on which the entire nature and world rest. If you are invoking one of the Bosnian faeries then you should always refer to the Faery queen and Faery mother under whose patronage are the other faeries. The two of them are actually ancient goddesses of moon and earth and that's why you should touch the ground with your palms after you draw the magical circle and then you lift them towards the moon, uttering: "divine mother of earth, divine mother of sky - bless me". Then she moves her palms across her face, chest all the way to her thighs.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Tue Sep 24, 2013 4:33 pm

U bosanskom vještičarstvu izražen je erotizam, pravilo da se znatan dio rituala, posebno onih iz domena ljubavne magije, izvodi bez odjeće. Tu je riječ o standardnoj praksi svakog vještičijeg kovena u Europi, jer cijeli sistem paganizma se temeljio na kultu plodnosti u kojem nagost i seksualni odnos muškarca i žene nisu bili tabuisani. Koncept vještičarstva je utemeljen na slavljenju intimnog odnosa Boginje i Boga, koji u svom vječnom ciklusu označavaju stvaralačku moć prirode. U bosanskom vještičarstvu nagost vještice predstavlja i određeni egzibicionizam jer ona gola izlazi napolje i obilazi oko kuće ili se oslobađa odjeće u prirodi, nekoj šumi ili pored rijeke, izložena opasnosti da je neko vidi.
Vještica kada želi iskoristiti zle duhove za svoje ciljeve odlazi na groblje, skida svu odjeću sa sebe i leže na neki određeni grob kako bi na taj način ponudila svoje tijelo za ulazak duhova koji će joj zauzvrat pomoći u ostvarenju nekog cilja. Ovakav oblik nadnaravne prostitucije nije rezervisan isključivo za vještice jer među duhovima, kao i među ljudima, postoje muški i ženski demoni čiji su seksualni nagoni izrazito jaki i usmjereni prema ljudima. U zamjenu za seks, koji se odvija na jednom drugačijem nivou nego onaj između dva ljudska bića, vještica i čarobnjak stječu saveznike iz svijeta duhova i tako postižu velike magijske efekte.

Izražena seksualnost česta je pojava među vješticama što potvrđuju mnogi primjeri iz stvarnog života gdje su žene koje su se aktivno bavile magijom bile poznate kao promiskuitetne osobe. Uz njih su se često povezivale različite afere, smatrane su glavnim krivcima za raspad nečijeg braka, posebno ukoliko je vještica imala ulogu ljubavnice, itd. Ni u starijoj životnoj dobi seksualni nagon vještice ne prestaje već ona koristi svoje magijske znanje kako bi pridobila mlađe muškarce za ljubavnike. Može se konstatirati kako vještičarstvo ženu oslobađa lažnog morala koje nam je nametnuo monoteizam, čija nam doktrina ciljano nameće osjećaj stida – da bi bili „dobri vjernici“ moramo se stidjeti svog tijela i seksualnosti. Seksualni odnos je prihvatljiv isključivo u braku kao metoda za produženje ljudske vrste. Čak i tada ne gleda se blagonaklono na uživanje u spolnom činu a posebno da u njemu žena dominira. Ona i u spolnom odnosu mora pokazati pokornost i stid.

Sklonost ali i mogućnost slobodnijem načinu života vješticama je donosio usamljenički način života. Naime, veliki dio žena koje su se aktivno bavile magijom uglavnom su bile udovice ili se nisu nikada ni udavale. Obično mnoge od njih nisu niti imale djecu. U narodnim predajama o vješticama tvrdi se kako su duhovi – ljubavnici jedini krivci za neplodnost vještice. Navodno, svaka vještica ima „muža“ među duhovima koji joj ne dozvoljava da ima djecu sa nekim muškarcem. Primarni cilj demonskog ljubavnika je da vještica rodi njegovo dijete koje bi bio neka vrsta mješanca između čovjeka i demona. Tu dolazimo do možda najmističnije predaje u bosanskom narodu a ona se tiče rođenja snijeti.

Smatra se da je snijet zapravo mladunče zmaja, jer prema vjerovanju u Bosni, među zmajevima ne postoje ženke već samo mužjaci pa jedina mogućnost za produženje vrste jeste da zmaj oplodi ženu ili kravu. No, i među takvim pričama mogu se čuti one koje izlaze iz standarnih opisa rođenja snijeti. Naime, pojedine žene nisu čak ni rodile snijet već je njihova trudnoća bila identična normalnoj trudnoći ali samo sa jednom razlikom. Nakon devet mjeseci nije se rađalo dijete niti stvorenje koje se nazivalo snijet?! Opisa takvih fantomski trudnoća ima priličan broj kroz povijest a jedan od najbolji primjera jeste trudnoća engleske kraljice Marije Tudor. U našem narodu postoje priče o fantomskim trudnoćama koje su završavale uvijek na isti način – žena bi navečer legla velikog stomaka a ujutro se probudila sa normalnom veličinom stomaka, kao da on nikada i nije bio kao u trudnice.

Cio događaj u prošlosti se tabuisao šutnjom i nisu se postavljala nikakva pitanja niti tražilo objašnjenje. Uglavnom se sve završavalo sa konstatacijom „da se rodila snijet!“. Naravno, da je u ovakvim slučajevima bilo i čedomorstva pa je snijet bila idealna izlika za prikrivanje zločina no, neke priče, posebno od žena kojima se takva fantomska trudnoća dogodila, govore o sasvim drugačijoj pozadini. One su smatrale da se „nešto“ rodilo tokom te noći i nestalo ili pobjeglo ne želeći da otkrije svoje pravo lice. Među tim ženama, prema kazivanju starijih, bio je znatan broj i onih žena za koje se smatralo da se bave magijom pa se zbog toga nameće mogućnost da se iza fantomske trudnoće možda krije neki demonski ljubavnik.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Wed Oct 02, 2013 9:13 pm

Hasiba Medinca iz Cazinske krajine može se slobodno nazvati jednom od zadnjih predstavnica bosanskog vještičarstva. Ona je bila od onih osoba koje su posjedovale veliko magijsko znanje koje je, na žalost, u većem dijelu nestalo zajedno sa njom. Imala je dug život koji se završio početkom ovog vijeka. Nije imala djece, i umrla je sasvim sama. No, iza nje su ostale mnoge istinite priče i predaje koje su od nje napravile kontraverznu osobu.

Magijsko znanje Hasibe je prema vlastitom kazivanju nasljedila od tetke za koju je govorila kako je bila veoma mudra žena koja je vrlo dobro poznavala magiju. Hasibe je otkrila svoj dar za magiju sa svim slučajno, naime, uspjela je izlječiti susjedovu kravu kojoj je na vimenu izrasla velika bradavica. Zbog toga krava je odbijala da se muze. Hasibe se ponudila da pomogne na što su susjedi pristali. Dlakom iz konjskog repa svezala je bradavicu istovremeno ponavljajući magijsku formulu. Sutra ujutro komšija joj je došao reći dobru vijest - bradavica je preko noći nestala?!

Iako to vjerovatno nije bio njen prvi magijski ritual Hasiba ga je često takvim predstavljala ne želeći detaljnije otkrivati svoju inicijaciju u vještičarstvo.  Bila je izuzetan ekspert za ljubavnu magiju koju je koristila kako bi pomogla mnogim ženama, uz novčanu naknadu, da smire tenzije u braku, eliminišu suparnice, ili da razdvoji muža i ženu. Pomagala je i djevojkama u namjeri da zavedu određenog muškarca i udaju se za njega. Magijsko znanje koristila je i u svom privatnom životu kako bi uvijek bila dominantna u kući i braku.

Prema kazivanju njene susjede Ajše  jedne prilike dok je bila u posjeti kod Hasibe između nje i njenog ljubavnika, kojeg je uspjela magijom odvojiti od njegove supruge i djece, počela je žestoka svađa u kojoj su pale uvrede i prijetnje. Svađa je rezultirala time da je ljubavnik demonstrativno napustio njenu kuću prijeteći joj kako je između njih dvoje završen zajednički život i da više nema pomirenja. On se vraća kući, svojoj ženi i familiji. Pošto je za njim bjesno zatvorila i zaključala vrata iznenađujuće  smireno se vratila u sobu. Susjedi je bilo izuzetno neugodno zbog svega što se desilo u njenom prisustvu ali ono što će usljediti nakon toga izazvalo je još veće iznenađenja kod nje.

-Sada će se on vratiti silom nazad, vidjet ćeš! - čim je te riječi izgovorila Hasibe je pred Ajšom skinula gaće sa sebe, između nogu tri puta provukla metlu koju je koristila za čišćenje sobe te je zatim tri puta prevrnula ponavljajući magijsku zakletvu. Nakon toga metlu je okrenula naopako i prislonila uza zid a na njih bacila svoje gaće. Zatim je kažiprstom desne ruke na podu sobe crtala mali krug stalno ponavljajući iste riječi zakletve. Cijeli taj ritual potrajao je nekih desetak minuta. Hasibe je nakon toga obukla nove gaće i smireno sjela pored susjede nastavljajući sa ispijanjem kafe. Nakon nekih dvadeset minuta začulo se jako lupanje na ulaznim vratima kuće i tihi, moleći glas njenog ljubavnika koji je stalno ponavlja: "Hasibe, molim te, otvori mi vrata!".

Čuvši to Hasibe se glasno nasmijala, prkosno i puna sebe, kazavši susjedi:"Neka ga, neka čeka pred vratima!", nastavljajući smireno sa ispijanjem kafe. Nakon nekoliko minuta ustala je, prišla vratima i glumeći da je povrijeđena njegovim izjavama, koje je rekao u toku svađe, odbila mu otvoriti vrata. Čim je čuo da ona mu ne želi otvoriti vrata ljubavnik je još jače počeo moliti, već na rubu plača, na što se ona prkosno smijala. Na kraju mu je napokon otvorila vrata i on je ušao u kući. Ono što je iznenadilo susjedu kada ga je vidjela bilo je njegovo lice puno znoja, kakvo ima čovjek koji naporno i dugo trči. Lice mu je bilo svo crvene boja, a on zadihan i znojan.

Nekoliko dana kasnije Hasibe je susjedi na njeno pitanje zašto je ljubavnik onaj dan izgledao onako znojan i zadihan otkrila kako su nakon njenog rituala džini napali ljubavnika i natjerali ga dase  trčeći vrati nazad. Zbog toga mu je lice bilo bilo crveno i puno znoja. - Da mu nisam htjela otvoriti vrata on bi završio loše, mogao je psihički ostati poremećen ili dobiti srčani udar.

Prema kazivanju drugih susjeda, prvih godina njenog vještičijeg života Hasibe je noćima uznemiravala i prizivala džine svojim mističnim ritualima koje je obavljala gola posjećujući groblja, šumu i sva ona mjesta za koje se zna da posjeduju magijsku moć. U narednim godinama, pa sve do njene smrti, džini su uznemirivali nju mučeći je svake noći nesanicom. Dok su svi u selu spavali mirnim snom ona je po kući palila svijeće, šetala po kući nervozna, nemirna, vječito zlovoljna i puna zla. Oko ponoći otvorila bi sve prozore u kući i na njima se, pod svjetlosti svijeća, pojavljivala gola izvodeći neki od svojih rituala, koje je najčešće radila po narudžbi neke lokalne žene. Ponosila se da može svojim ritualima djelovati na bilo koju osobu u krugu od 30-40 kilometara. Prema vlastitom kazivanju mogla je vratiti svakog muža ili ženu koji bi napustili brak ili vezu ali isključivo unutar četiri mjeseca od prekida. Svaku ženu je redovito savjetovala da koriste ljubavnu magiju onda kada u braku nema problema jer ako se već tada počne sa čarolijama brak će savršeno funkcionisati sve do kraja života.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Mon Oct 21, 2013 11:35 pm

Eroticism is prominent in Bosnian witchcraft, the rule is that a considerable amount of the ritual, especially the one from the domain of love magic, is performed naked. That is the standard practice of every witch coven in Europe, since the whole system of paganism was based on the cult of fertility in which nakedness and sexual relations between men and women weren't tabooed. The concept of witchcraft is based on glorification of intimate relations between the goddess and god, which in their eternal cycle connotes the creative power of nature. Among the Bosnian witchcraft the nakedness of the witch represents certain exhibitionism since she goes outside naked and encircles the house or frees herself of her clothing in nature, some grove or near a river, subject to danger of someone seeing her.

When a witch wishes to utilise evil spirits for her own goals she goes to a graveyard, strips and lies on a certain grave in order to offer her body for the entrance of spirits which will in turn help her achieve a certain goal. This form of supernatural prostitution is not reserved exclusively for witches since among the ghosts, as among humans, there are female and male demons whose sexual urges are quite potent and are directed towards humans. In exchange for sex, which takes place on a different plane from the one between two human beings, the witch or wizard gain allies from the world of ghosts and in such a way they achieve grand magical effects.

The pronounced sexuality is a common occurrence among witches which is confirmed by numerous examples from the real life where women who actively pursued magic were known as promiscuous individuals. Various affairs were often linked to them, they were considered main culprits for divorces, especially if the witch served as a lover, etc. The sexual urges of the witch don't wane over time, she uses her magical knowledge to win over younger men as lovers. We can conclude that witchcraft frees women from the false morale which was thrust upon us by monotheism, whose doctrine specifically imposes feelings of shame - in order to be "good Samaritans" we need to feel shame for our bodies and sexuality. Sex is exclusively allowed in marriage as a method of continuing the species. Even then the enjoyment in the sexual act isn't viewed favourably especially if the woman dominates. She needs to show submissiveness and shame during the act.

The tendency but also the possibility of the free life of witches usually carried with it reclusive lifestyle. Namely, a large part of women who actively practiced magic were usually widows or they never married. Usually most of them never had children. In folk lore about witches it is claimed that ghosts - lovers are the ones to blame for the witches infertility. Apparently, each witch has a "husband" among the ghosts which don't allow her to have children with another man. The primary goal of the demon lover is to impregnate the witch with his child which would be a mixture between a demon and a human. Here we come across perhaps the most mystic tradition among the Bosnian people and it is the one about the birth of snijet.

It is considered that snijet is actually a dragon's baby, because according to belief in Bosnia among the dragons there are no females but only males and the only possibility for the continuation of the species is for the dragon to impregnate a woman or a cow. But, also among such stories we can hear the ones that do not fit the framework of the classic description of the birth of snijet. Namely, individual women didn't even give birth to a snijet since their pregnancy was normal but it had one key difference. After nine months a child wasn't born nor was it a snijet?! There are numerous such descriptions of phantom pregnancies throughout history and one of the best examples is the pregnancy of the English queen Mary (of England) Tudor. Among our folk there are stories about phantom pregnancies which always ended in the same manner - the woman would go to sleep at night with a large stomach and in the morning she would wake up with a normal stomach, as if the pregnancy never took place.

The whole event was tabooed in the past by silence and no questions were asked and no explanation was sought. Usually all was finished with the claim "that snijet was born!" Of course, there was infanticide in such cases and snijet was a good excuse to hide the crime, but some stories, especially from women that lived through a phantom pregnancy talk about a completely different background. They believed that "something" was born that night and disappeared or ran away not wanting to show it true face. Among such women, according to stories from older people, there were a considerable number of them for which it was believed that they practice magic and that's why the possibility that there was a demon lover responsible for the phantom pregnancy imposes itself.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Tue Oct 29, 2013 7:22 pm

Hasiba Medinica from Cazinska krajina can be called one of the last representatives of Bosnian witchcraft. She possessed vast magical knowledge, which was unfortunately, lost in great part together with her. She had a long life which ended at the beginning of this century. She didn't have any children, and she died alone. But, she left many true stories and legends behind which made her a controversial figure.

The magical knowledge of Hasiba according to her own reports she inherited from her aunt for whom she said was a very wise woman which was well acquainted with magic. Hasiba discovered her gift for magic accidentally, namely, she managed to heal the neighbours cow which had a large warts on her udder. The cow refused to be milked. Hasibe offered to help which the neighbours accepted. Using a string of hair from a horse's tail she tied the warts while uttering a magical formula. Tomorrow morning the neighbour came to tell her the good news - the warts disappeared overnight?!

Even though that wasn't her first magic ritual, Hasiba presented it as such because she didn't want to reveal her initiation into witchcraft. She was an exceptional expert in love magic which she used to help numerous women, for a fee, to calm the tensions in marriage, eliminate competitors, or to separate a husband and a wife. She also helped girls seduce a certain man and to marry him. She used her magical knowledge in her private life in order to be more dominant in the household and marriage.

According to stories of her neighbour Ajša one time when she was visiting Hasiba, Hasiba and her lover, which she managed to separate from his wife and children, started a heated argument with a lot of insults and threats. The fight resulted in the lover leaving the house demonstratively threatening her that their life together is over and that they will never get back together. He will go home to his wife and children. After she closed the door behind him furiously, she walked back into the room surprisingly calm. Her neighbour felt unpleasant since it all took place in front of her, but what happened next caused an even greater surprise.

He will be forced back, you will see! - as soon as she uttered those words she took her panties off in front of her neighbour, she slipped through a broom that she used to clean the room three times between her legs and turned it over three times uttering a magical formula. After that she turned the broom upside down and threw her panties on top of the broom. Then she drew with her index finger a circle on the floor of the room constantly uttering a magical formula. That entire ritual lasted for ten minutes. After that Hasibe put on a new pair of panties and calmly sat next to her neighbour continuing to drink coffee. After some twenty minutes a loud knocking was heard and a quiet pleading voice of her lover continuously repeated : "Hasiba, please open the door!"

Hearing that Hasiba laughed loudly, defiant and full of herself, she told the neighbour: "Let him wait, let him wait in front of the door!", she continued to drink her coffee calmly. After a few minutes she stood up, and approached the door and told him that she was hurt by his words that he uttered during the fight, and she refused to open the door for him.

A few days later, Hasibe answered her neighbour's question why her lover was sweaty and of heavy breath by telling her that ritual Djin made him come back to her running. That's why his face was all red and full of sweat. - If I didn't open the door for him it might have ended badly, he could have been mentally retarded or he might have had a stroke.

According to story of other neighbours, the first year of her life Hasiba used to disturb and invoke Djin with her mystical rituals which she conducted naked visiting the local graveyards, forests and all those places that are known for their magical power. In the next years, until her death, the Djin disturbed her tormenting her with insomnia every night. While all slept peacefully she would light candles in her home, she would walk up and down nervous, restless, always moody and full of evil. During midnight she would open all of her windows, and under candlelight she would appear naked performing some of her rituals, which she did for some local women. She was proud of the fact that she could influence a person in a circle of 30-40 kilometres. According to her she could return every husband to his wife and vice-versa but only during the first four months of the breakup. She would regularly advise every woman to use love magic when there are no problems in marriage because if you start using magic then, the marriage will be perfect for the rest of their lives.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Kult zviždenjaka   Mon Nov 18, 2013 12:05 am

Mistični svijet Bošnjaka krije u sebi, osim svoje jedinstvenosti, i bogat religijsko-magijski koncept prožet šamanizmom. Kada analiziramo mnoštvo registrovanih vjerovanja dolazimo do jedinstvene cjeline koja nam otkriva fascinantan podatak koliko je bosanski narod u svojoj dugoj povijesti bio povezan sa prirodom i njenim silama. Bošnjaci su još od antičkih vremena vjerovali kako svaki čovjek ima svoju zvijezdu na nebu, sjedište duše, a na zemlji zmiju čuvara kuće i familije, svoje stablo i izvor te u podzemnom svijetu zviždenjaka. Pojedini antropolozi pokušali su sve navedene elemente svrstati u tezu o čovjekovim dvojnicima (astralnim, vegetabilnim i animalnim), bez obzira što su njihovi životi i postojanje sasvim nezavisni od čovjekovog života i nemaju sa njim nikakve dodirne veze osim u pojedinim situacijama, tojest onim koji se tiču smrti. Upravo zbog toga ova pretpostavka je sasvim pogrešna i neutemeljena. Međutim, u mističnoj povezanosti čovjeka i prirode uočavamo dominantan uticaj fatalizma, koji je zajednički svim mediteranskim narodima i kulturama, u kombinaciji sa ilirskim kultom zmije.

Tradicionalna predanja o bliskoj vezi pojedinih reptila sa ljudima mogu se analizom bosanske mitologije podijeliti u četiri poglavlja:
-o zmiji čuvaru kuće i familije,
-zmiji koja može ući u čovjeka i u njegovom tijelu živjeti određeno vrijeme,
-o seksualnim kontaktima između zmajeva i žena te rađanje snijeti, mladunčeta zmaja,
- i o zviždenjaku i njegovom jedenju mrtvog čovjeka.

Sva navedena poglavlja zapravo su segmenti jedinstvenog kulta zmije, životinje-totema naših predaka. Osim kao totemski simbol zmija je Ilirima predstavljala najveće božanstvo čiji duh prožima cjelokupnu prirodu i svemir što se posebno dobro reflektira u vjerovanju kako se oko cijele planete Zemlje proteže ogromna zmija koja na taj način tvori prsten. Zmija je prema drevnom vjerovanju stvorena 40 godina prije bilo koje druge životinje i čovjeka zbog čega je posebno naglašena njena uloga u kultu Velike Majke. Naime, zmija, ili u svom nebeskom obliku zmaj, klasični je simbol plodnosti. U bosanskoj tradiciji povezivanje zmije i zmaja može se vezati sa personificiranim predstavama vegetacijskog ciklusa analogno onom iz grčko-rimske mitologije. Zmaj u stvari pravi kružno putovanje, iz zemlje izlazi kroz vodu, prolazi ili leti do drugog lokaliteta gdje ulazi u jamu, rupu, nestaje u zemlji i opet se nakon nekog razdoblja pojavljuje.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Mon Nov 18, 2013 12:06 am

Animizam, koji je neodvojiv od šamanizma, uočljiv je u mnogim segmentima bosanske narodne religije, u čijem su okrilju nastali najdugovječniji kultovi kojima su Iliri dali religijski smisao i na taj način ugradili ih u kolektivnu svijest Bošnjaka. Kult zviždenjaka (Salamandra salamandra) u bosanskom narodu usko je vezan za kult zmije i vjerovanje u zmaja. Naziv zviždenjak ovaj gušter je dobio zbog vjerovanja kako od njegovog zvižduka ili vriska čovjek može istog trena ostati gluh. Naziva se još i družđ ili diževnjak.
Na osnovu drevnog bosanskog vjerovanja može se konstatirati kako je upravo zviždenjak minijaturni oblik zmaja na zemlji. Njegova žuta boja sa crnim tačkama vjerno odslikava ilirsku legendu o bogu zla, velikom crnom zmaju, koji je uspio progutati dva sunca na nebu dok je treće spasila lastavica. Narod i danas vjeruje kako je upravo ta žuta boja između crne na njegovom tijelu tragovi dva sunca koje je progutao. Iako u svom minijaturnom obliku zviždenjak ima moć da našteti svakom čovjeku koji mu pokuša nauditi. Naime, i danas se vjeruje da ukoliko neko uznemirava ili stane na zviždenjaka može ostati gluh od njegovog vriska. Zviždenjak se u narodu povezuje sa kišom jer prema vjerovanju on se pojavljuje pred kišu ili nakon nje.
Osim očitog straha od susreta sa zviždenjakom i vjerovanja da je ovaj reptil glasnik kiše u narodu ne postoje ona klasična proricanja o slučajnom susretu sa životinjama po kojima se nekom čovjeku predviđa sreća ili nesreća, kao u slučaju susreta sa lisicom, zecom, vukom i slično. Analogno sa zmijom i vjerovanja vezana uz zviždenjaka su kontradiktorna; u nekim se iskazuje poštovanje prema njemu dok se u drugim sugerira da se na njega baci kletva „Da Bog da, ako si moj, da umreš prije mene!“ ili čak da se poduzmu rigoroznije mjere tojest da se on ubije. Ubijanje zviždenjaka u velikoj je opoziciji sa pokušajem pojedinih antropologa i etnologa da zviždenjaka proglase čovjekovim animalnim dvojnikom, jer da je tako ubijanje te životinje bi bilo zabranjeno i označeno velikim grijehom.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Mon Nov 18, 2013 12:06 am

Prema vjerovanju bosanskog naroda svaki čovjek ima svog zviždenjaka, mada ostaje nepoznanica da li ga on dobije svojim rođenjem ili se u njegovom životu pojavi u određenoj dobi?! Kad čovjek umre, treći dan nakon dženaze, zviždenjak mu dolazi u kabur. Ukoliko je čovjek za života bio griješan, zviždenjak ga počne jesti od nosa, a ako je čovjek bio plemenit, onda on samo leži pored njega u grobu. Zbog toga se zviždenjak ne smije ubiti; ako se vidi negdje na putu džaiz je uzeti ga u ruku pa prenijeti preko puta i ostaviti uz avliju ili na livadi. Ovakav čin pažnje može se dovesti u vezu sa pokušajem čovjeka da umilostivi svog zagrobnog pratioca da ga poštedi jedenja.
U drugom vjerovanju navodi se kako nakon čovjekove smrti zviždenjak dolazi u kabur svom sahibiji (vlasniku) da mu poželi dobrodošlicu te ga počne jesti od velikog nožnog prsta. Zanimljivo je napomenuti kako se u bosanskom narodu vjeruje da nakon što čovjek umre i sahrane ga, u jednom trenutku u njegovo mrtvo tijelo vrati se duša, ulazeći kroz nožne prste, što rezultira oživljavanjem tijela ali i pojavom histerije zbog čega uskrsli čovjek pokuša ustati te tako udari glavom u daske iznad njega i opet umre. Zbog toga se može pretpostaviti kako zviždenjak prvo počne jesti nožne prste mrtvacu kako bi onemogućio njegovo ponovno oživljavanje ili se takav čin može mitološki prezentirati kao „jedenje života“ ili oduzimanje životne energije.
Osim što počne jesti čovjeka od nožnih prstiju narod u pojedinim dijelovima BiH vjeruje da zviždenjak čim uđe u grob čovjeku prvo pojede oči ili nos. Kako su oči božanski dar ljudima i samim time nešto sveto, što potvrđuje vjerovanje koje tvrdi kako nema većeg grijeha od onog kada se čovjek zakune u svoje oči, može se zaključiti da zviždenjak uvijek ciljano napadne tabuirane dijelove ljudskog tijela. Isto tako, narod vjeruje kako je Bog najteže na čovjeku stvorio nos pa se zbog toga izrugivanje veličini ili obliku nečijeg nosa smatra velikim grijehom.

Analizom svega napisanog dolazimo do zaključka kako je zadatak zviždenjaka da čovjeku u grobu pojede nožne prste, kako bi spriječio da on oživi, ili nos te popije oči tojest da mu na taj način oduzme božanski dar nakon čega tijelo ostaje potpuno beživotno i lišeno svega onoga što ga može razlikovati od zemlje, od koje je prema mitološkom predanju potekao.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Mon Dec 09, 2013 11:19 pm

Cultural anthropology which combines a few special disciplines such as ethnology, archaeology or linguistics, gives us a perfect insight into the history and heritage of a certain people, and it tries, fairly successfully, to show in a logical sense the evolutionary trend present throughout history among a certain people. Influences are, of course, socially multifaceted, and so with the cultural the religious influence was supplemented and the circle would be complete.

If we wish to monitor carefully that evolutionary sequence of events then we surely must reach out to mythology, its fantastic creatures and legends, mostly for the fact that mythology is the most archaic form of art which for the first time showed mankind's limitless imagination. Inhabiting nature and the world around them with highly unusual and different beings and appearances, mankind first of all showed their social nature, but also the need to express its intimate fears, hopes, aspirations and frustrations. The tendency to express oneself in the best possible way resulted in the appearance of various stories, legends, drawings and sculptures about a different world where the principles of good and evil are highly accentuated, and what is more important, where they show their meaning and efficiency. Through those mediums we come across information about classic frustration with everyday life to which people were subject to in the old days as well as today. That's why mythology as a discipline always suggests that there is no one answer but that there are many.


Consistency of mythological legends is evident in various segments of a society in its entirety, even though it might not be so visible at first glance. Some of its parts, smaller or larger segments, are so incorporated in everyday life that no one pays attention to them, nor is their deeper meaning analysed. In more recent past mythology was present in social memory mostly when one wanted to achieve a political goal, which is always connected with nationalism and genocidal ideas, which we could witness during the end of the last century when the militant politics of Serbia specifically and deliberately used the historic event, defeat by the Ottomans at Kosovo, to start their military invasion on neighbouring republics which had catastrophic circumstances, such as the genocide in Srebrenica but also in other cities in BiH.

When we want to study the mythology of Bosnia and Herzegovina but also of the entire former Yugoslavia we have to start from the historical fact that southern Slavs don't exist. There are only people of southern Europe which use Slavic languages, but those people are not of Slavic descent but Illyrian, especially the people from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, which was proven a couple of times with the analysis of genetic origin. The mistake that historians made in their estimate of the origin of a certain people based solely on their language is catastrophic and, as we have witnessed, historically tragic. According to that theory todays Mexicans should be Spaniards, Brazilians or Portuguese, etc.

One of the studies on genetic origin of the inhabitants of former Yugoslav republics was implemented in cooperation with: Institute for Anthropological research in Zagreb, Medical University in Skopje, Clinical centre in Belgrade, Estonian Bio-centre at the Tart University, Medical University in Priština, Medical Faculty in Tuzla, Clinical hospital "Bijeli Brijeg" in Tuzla, Health centre in Zagreb and Medical school in Edinburgh - Scotland. For the results to be as close to reality in the field, the tests were gathered in all cities of the former Yugoslav republic.

The results showed that the most dominant were the haplogroup's on the territory of former Yugoslavia: 1lb, R1a, R1b and E3bl. Haplogroup l1b or so called "Illyrian gene" was the most widespread in all countries of former Yugoslavia, and the most interesting fact is that the group l1b was present even in 70% in Herzegovina, Dalmatia and other islands. In Bosnia this group was present in 52, 20% while the Slavic group R1 on the entire territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina was present only in 24,60% of the cases.

Precisely those facts correspond with the ever present confusion of scientific circles, especially after genetic analysis, did the arrival of Slavic tribes to the Balkans really ever took place? There are indications which gain more authenticity, that such an event never took place, but that the Illyrians, after a difficult and long occupation by the Roman empire, created a pretty intelligent plan of survival and preservation through assimilation of languages of neighbouring Slavic countries in order to ensure some sort of peace and possibility for survival through a turbulent history.

Many segments of Illyrian religion are still present today in all countries that made up the former Yugoslav republic such as the snake cult, belief in stars-guardians of souls, cult of fertility, and solar and lunar cults, worship of water through the cult of god Bindu, belief in spellbound eyes, the name spellbound (Urok) is an Illyrian word, etc.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Bosanski kult žabe   Mon Jan 20, 2014 6:13 pm

U kultovima naših predaka, koji su bili prožeti jakim uticajem animizma, šamanizma i fatalizma, pojedine životinje, a u ovom slučaju žaba, imale su svoju religijsku funkciju jer su predstavljaje inkarnaciju nekog božanstva ili sadržavale njegov duh preko kojeg su djeluje na okolinu. Najpoznatiji primjer božanske uloge žabe susrećemo u drevnom Egiptu gdje se slavila Heket, božica plodnosti, zaštitnica porodilja i djece, inače prikazivana kao boginja-žaba. Predstavljala je život u svom punom smislu te se zbog toga može smatrati Velikom Majkom, koju je kasnije zamjenila Izida. No, porijeklo tog simbolizma nije izvorno egipatsko već je komponenta religijsko-magijskog sistema koji su između sebe dijelile stare kulture, među kojima su bili i Iliri.
U Sarajevu, ali i ostatku Bosne i Hercegovine, sve do kraja prošlog vijeka vjerovalo se da svaka kuća, osim zmije, ima i svoju žabu koja ima blagotvoran efekat na kravlje mlijeko, naime, čini ga kvalitetnim i ukusnim. Posebno poštovanje ukazivalo se žabi koja bi odabrala svoje mjesto za boravak ispod kućnog praga, što izravno dovodi ovu životinju u vezu sa Velikom Majkom, prvenstveno zbog uloge kućnog praga u kultu plodnosti, ali i pojmom mlijeka. Još jedno vjerovanje koje podržava tezu o žabi zaštitniku kuće i familije te o svetoj simbolici kućnog praga kao simbola Velike Majke nalazimo u Velikoj Kladuši. Dođe li pred nečija ulazna vrata žaba, ili se ona pronađe ujutro pred vratima, vjeruje se da taj događaj upozorava ukućane da je njihova kuća postala meta zla i crne magije.
Kućna žaba se poput zmije smatrala članom familije. U skladu sa tim bilo ju je zabranjeno ubijati, jer bi u protivnom krave prestale davati mlijeko. Ako domaćica ugleda žabu u kući, ona je ne uznemirava već, dapače, pusti je da se kreće u kojem pravcu želi. No, pronađe li je nekim slučajem mrtvu u kući, odmah se uhvati rukama za uši i stisnutih usana u slovo O uvuče zrak u usta kako bi proizvela glas sličan onom koji proizvodi miš, govoreći prije i nakon toga „Bog sa mnom bio!“. Opisani profilaktički ritual ima za cilj da neutrališe nesreću koja bi  mogla zadesiti kuću zbog smrti žabe, jer nakon gubitka zaštitnika, taj dom a posebno stoka izloženi su napadima demona.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Mon Jan 20, 2014 6:14 pm

Žaba – Velika Majka

Žaba koja personificira Veliku Majku, ili neku od njenih manifestacija, i po svom fizičkom izgledu, tojest zadnjem dijelu tijela, podsjeća na ženu sa isturenom stražnjicom i izraženim bokovima, što su uostalom glavni atributi, uz velike grudi i stomak, same Velike Majke čiju fizičku predodžbu na mnogim kipovima i crtežima možemo pratimo sve do neolitskog doba. Konzistenciju simbolike žabe kao božanske manifestacije plodnosti zbog toga je moguće kronološki sagledati od najranije ljudske povijesti do današnjice te utvrditi njen značaj u razvoju religijske svijesti na prostoru BiH.
U zabilježenoj priči o ženama iz familije Dizdarević sa Gradine koje su jednog mjeseca ramazana, odmah nakon zalaska sunca, krenule u posjet drugim ženama u grad te se jedna od njih na putu susrela sa velikom napuhnutom žabom, koju ona naziva „baba“, jasno se potencira priča o trudnici i porođaju. Pošto je žaba iskočila na put pred jednu od njih, mladu nevjestu, ona ju je udarila nogom i opazivši da je žaba sva naduta u tijelu reče joj „Čuješ li babo! Kad rodiš zovi me na babine!“ U nastavku priče se govori kako su, nakon nekog vremena, po tu mladu nevjestu došli đavoli kako bi je sa sobom odveli u pećinu gdje žaba rađa da joj pomogne u porođaju, zaprijetivši joj ukoliko se rodi žensko da joj se loše piše ali ako se rodi muško dobiće veliku nagradu. Mlada nevjesta je bila primorana da asistira pri porođaju žabe i pošto se rodio sin bogatu su je nagradili i počastili velikom gozbom.
U kolokvijalnom govoru za žabu se govorilo da je baba ili babetina, što je u etimologiji povezano sa pojmom zbabna, narodni naziv za trudnu ženu, ili babine – period od 40 dana nakon porođaja kada je mlada majka izložena mnogim opasnostima i tabuima. Taj period je i vrijeme posjeta drugih žena kada se majka i dijete daruju poklonima.
U Rogatici i Žepi se vjeruje da se pred malim djetetom ne smije reži „žaba“ nego „baba“. Taj tabu u sebi krije strah od osvete žabe, zbog toga što se ona u narodnim pričama dovodi u vezu sa demonima i vješticama koji su zapravo tradicionalno povezani sa porođajem i babinama. Njihov primarni zadatak je da naštete na bilo koji način majci i djetetu. U Rogatici taj strah je zakamufliran vjerovanjem kako „žaba može da oživi u djetetu“ što je opet jako slično jednom drugom vjerovanju o zmiji, za koju se tvrdi da može ući u tijelo čovjeka i neko vrijeme živjeti u njemu.
Žaba je je čest motiv mnogih vjerovanja posvećenih djeci. Naime, mala djeca su se uvijek plašila pred žabom otvoriti usta, iz straha da im ona ne bi prebrojila zube, jer, desi li se to, mogla bi tom djetetu umrijeti majka. Ovaj tabu nije nimalo slučajan već je proistekao iz klasičnog poštovanja ljudi prema bogovima. Plašenje djece da drže zatvorena usta pred žabom znak je izražavanja poštovanja prema Velikoj Majci.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Mon Jan 20, 2014 6:15 pm

Životinja misteriozne moći

Ne treba nikako zaboraviti navesti kako zmija i žaba imaju identične misteriozne moći. Naime, u bosanskom narodu se vjeruje kako žaba jede zemlju, a za zmiju odnosno zmaja se vjeruje da napada i proždire Sunce ili Mjesec. Isto tako, obje životinje imaju misterioznu moć da zapuhnu čovjeka ili kravu, ovcu, ili neku drugu domaću životinju usljed čega kod njih dolazi do neobičnog stanja. Osim što je na taj način povezana sa zmijom, žaba također posjeduje identičnu moć koja se pridaje zviždenjaku – moć da učini čovjeka gluhim. U jednom receptu ljubavne magije mladić ili djevojka koji žele osvojiti srce neke osobe moraju uhvatiti živu žabu i odnijeti je zakopati u mravinjak. Žaba se pokrije loncem kako bi se osiguralo da neće pobjeći dok je mravi ne pojedu. Čim se žaba poklopi sa loncem djevojka ili momak moraju pobjeći što dalje jer čuju li kreket žabe mogu istog trena ostati gluhi.
Žaba je ambivalentni simbol: živi i u vodi i na kopnu, vezana je za kult plodnosti ali i za kult mrtvih. U narodu često se kroz vjerovanja ona vezuje za poljoprivredu tojest početak radova na polju ali i proricatelj plodne godine. Naime, žaba je klimatski indikator – sjetva kukuruza se u prošlosti našeg naroda uvijek određivala po početku kreketanja žaba. Naime, od tog dana kada se začuje kreket smatralo se da je najsigurnije vrijeme za sjetvu jer nakon toga neće biti mraza i hladnog vremena. U Mostaru i njegovoj okolini se vjeruje da kreketanje žaba u rano proljeće predviđa sunčano proljeće i dobar urod pšenice te godine.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Mon Jan 20, 2014 6:17 pm

U bosanskoj mitologiji žaba je duboko povezana sa prirodom i njenim duhovima, pa se zbog toga može nazvati medijem. Njena se sposobnost manifestira na nekoliko načina: od klimatskih prognoza, konekcije sa ljudskim duhom pa sve do spritualističkih interakcija. U jednoj od narodnih priča navodi se kako je u vrijeme Osmanlijske okupacije BiH živjela lijepa Ajša, kćerka bosanskog plemića, koja se trebala udati za Sali efendiju, mladića kojeg je silno voljela. No, njihove planove poremetila je jedna od mnogih bitki u koju je morao otići i njen voljeni zaručnik. Nakon teškog rastanka Ajša je provela mnoge dane čekajući povratak svog voljenog Sali efendije no umjesto njega stigla je vijest o njegovoj pogibelji.
Od šoka i bola Ajša je pokidala skupocjenu odjeću sa sebe i tri dana provela zatvorena u sobu plačući i apstinirajući od hrane i pića. Da bi prekinula njenu patnju služavka je nagovori da zajedno odu do poznate faladžinice, kako bi kod nje pronašla bar mrvu utjehe i tračak nade za svoje bolno srce. Došavši kod proročice, u njen skromni dom, Ajša pred nju položi bogat poklon i zamoli je da učini ono što niko drugi ne može osim nje – prizove joj duh mrtvog zaručnika kako bi mu postavila pitanje da li još uvijek misli na nju.
Pošto je djevojka bila kćer bogatih roditelja faladžinica je nije mogla odbiti istovremeno nadajući se obilnoj nagradi ukoliko njen trud urodi plodom. A i sažali se nad mladošću i slomljenom ružom. -Allah će oprostiti grijeh ako je zbog ljubavi, pomisli proročica u sebi, i izvadi iz lonca vode veliku žabu. Pošto ju je stavila u bakrenu tepsiju položi je na ploču prepunu žeravice i započe svoj ritual. Ritmički se njišući naprijed nazad faletarka počne da mrmlja neku nepoznatu molitvu posmatrajući kretanje žabe. Čim se tepsija počela zagrijavati žaba uznemirena toplinom zakreketa. Na to starica reče Ajši da počne da moli jer duh zaručnika je na putu. Djevojka čuvši to zadrhta od radosti i straha i zajedno sa proročicom otpoče sa molitvom. Nakon toga starica sklopi ruke i njišući se oko tepsije započe sa postavljanjem pitanja žabi:
-Kako ti je ime prizvani duhu? Žaba na to kreknu.
-Je li živ Sali efendija? Žaba opet kreknu.
-Hvala ti Bože nebeski! Ajša,tvoja vjerna zaručnica i buduća supruga, da li je u tvom srcu?
Žaba i treći put kreknu. -Sali efendija živ je i vjeran svojoj Ajši, uskoro će doći i utješiti je, obznani faladžinica na glas. Odmah se okrenu Ajši budeći je iz njenog polusna i obavijesti je što joj je žaba otkrila. Djevojka obasuta dobrim vijestima skide sa vrata zlatnu ogrlicu i pokloni je starici te brzim koracima i očima punim suza radosnica napusti njenu kuću. Potrči van da udahne svježeg zraka i oslobođena golemog tereta podijeli svoju sreću sa roditeljima. Osjećala se najsretnijom ženom na svijetu što je u tom trenutku zaista i bila.
Poslije tri sedmice desi se čudo. Jednog lijepog ljetnjeg predvečerja Sali efendija na svom konju dojaha ravno pred kuću svoje zaručnice. Živ i zdrav, željan da ugleda lice one koju najviše voli. Nekoliko dana kasnije pred hodžom sklopiše brak a faletarku nagradiše fesom punim srebra.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Little secrets of Bosnian witchcraft    Tue Jul 29, 2014 5:52 pm

The palm is considered to be an extremely favourable part of the human body which has the power to receive and emit energy. All Bosnian witches know this secret. Every time when another witch came to meet them, an enemy or a person full of negative energy, which has the power of spellbound eyes, the witch would then point her right palm in front of such people, fingers spread and she would gaze through her fingers into that person. With such a simple ritual she would annul all possibilities of negative effect from the person she would shortly meet.



In everyday life one should watch out for the destructive influence of spellbound eyes. When a person falsely pities you, but actually is happy because of what it sees, and tells you: "Oh you so skinny?!" or "Oh you are so sick?!" or something else, you should immediately in their presence perform the ancient ritual from Bosnian witchcraft with which you protect yourself but at the same time send back the negative energy of that person. Touch your backside with the palm of your right hand, then point that hand into the direction of that person, showing her the palm with your fingers raised, uttering: "Here is your thinness!", "Here is your disease!", etc.

According to belief the backside is the only part of the body which cannot be affected by spellbound eyes. That's why many mothers in Bosnia and Herzegovina still today while holding their child in their arms, before guests enter the house or before going out to the streets, touch the child's backside and then his forehead and utters this prophylactic formula: "Whosoever harms with spellbound eyes this down here (touches the backside of the child) and then harms this up here (touches the forehead)".

Belief in apotropaic power of the backside is evident in the following example; whosoever wears his drawer's upside-down gains immunity from black magic or spellbound eyes. It is considered that it is extremely effective to wear overturned drawers on the first Wednesday when the new moon appears, since it neutralises all danger from evil spells and in the case of it being sent by a black mage, the magic shall be returned to him.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Witches and a snake   Wed Oct 08, 2014 3:44 pm

Bosnian magic draws strength in its entirety from nature of which man is an inseparable part, therefore we shouldn't be surprised that witches pay more attention to the signs and symbols which they receive from nature. Since the times of the Illyrians and ancient country Bassania the cult of snake was worshipped, the snake was represented as the most perfect animal in nature and that's why it became their symbol. All Illyrian tribes dispersed across the vast Illyrian kingdom (Illyricum) considered the snake as their national and religious symbol, totem, with which the traditional legend about the genesis of the people was tied to.

The Illyrian cult of the snake remained in Bosnia and Herzegovina after the departure of the Slavs in the seventh century as a cult protector of the house and family and with it numerous beliefs about the snake. One of the beliefs is strongly implanted into Bosnian witchcraft since in essence it represents directions according to which a witch receives an answer from nature itself, embodied in the snake, if supernatural forces are inclined towards her or not. Namely, at spring, when encountering the snake for the first time, that year the Bosnian witch would receive an answer if in the following period she will be powerful and full of strength or will she have to reach for some rituals and techniques to acquire the necessary magical strength for reaching her occult goals. If she sees a live snake it is a very good sign which promises her the blessing of nature, that year she will be full of strength and health, but if she sees a dead snake the opposite will be true.

However, if she happens to come across a dead snake the witch can, with the help of magic, again asking for help from forces of nature, rectify her unlucky future, reaching for certain magical rituals.
According to beliefs, evil witches have the power of transformation into a black snake which you can come across in graveyards or you can see her crossing the street. In such circumstances you shouldn't touch that snake, you should allow her to go where she wants. Unlike the black, the white snake is considered to be good among the folk and she can open the door to the spirit world for an experienced witch. Even though in the past there was a greater number of witches, today there are only a few and the information about their work is rare and short, reduced to the level of a common gossip. The last information which correctly speaks about their practice dates from 1996 when a case, which can be characterised as a medical miracle, happened.

A husband of one of the witches got cancer which appeared in the throat of the unlucky man. Since the doctors didn't offer any other solutions besides chemo therapy and surgery, not leaving a lot of room for optimism and a happy ending, the witch decided to use an ancient ritual which exists since the time of ancient Illyrians. In the forest she searched for a white snake, she beat it with a stick and brought it home. She placed the dead snake in a metal bowl and then cooked it in a fire until the body of the snake turned into coal and dust. She placed the dust into a glass and went with it into the nature. She searched for a place where she couldn't hear human voices nor that of a rooster, a place that has a wide meadow that borders with a large forest. All these conditions are not accidental, they correspond to the representation of the place where energy and forces are in their full capacity and where one can only accomplish a contact with the spirits of nature.

When she found that oasis of magic the witch placed some of the snake dust under her tongue and uttered an ancient prayer to the spirits of nature so they can answer her call and open the door for her. She didn't wait long for the fulfilment of her wish. Suddenly she heard one, then two, three and then more whispers which reached her ears. When she got used to these small voices she could then clearly hear what they were talking about and she could communicate with the forces of nature and she could ask them to reveal to her which plants will heal her sick husband. The epilogue of this story is a happy one, the spirits revealed the secret of the cure to her with which she cured her husband from the unlucky disease in a short time. When, after some time, she visited her doctor he was amazed because he couldn't believe that cancer in an advanced phase could recede and disappear?! The only explanation that the patient offered to the doctor is that he cured himself with some tea which his wife made for him. The husband himself didn't know what she used to get the recipe. I think he will never find out since magical secrets are reserved only for those that don't have prejudices.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Today at 11:15 pm

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