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 Bosansko vještičarstvo

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KomentarNaslov komentara: Witchcraft in Bosnia   Thu Sep 27, 2012 8:00 pm

Thanks to Bogumils who at one period of the BiH history used to be dominant religion and, in the same time, worshipers of Nature, the old cults managed to survive. By their credit we can, today, follow the leads of old days witchcraft performance, which, after so many centuries still exist through various beliefs and practical performance.



Witches and their religion of Nature; worshiping of God and Goddess through the Sun and the Moon, have their deep roots in the beliefs of many nations across the Balkans and the rest of the Europe. These days, analysing ethnological data, as well as traditional beliefs from Bosnia; dozens of extremely interesting details can be disclosed showing us that old religion of Nature managed to survive both time and monotheism. However, in order to present data on witches’ performance it is necessary to write so many pages with so many data enclosed. Since, every single journey begins with a single step we’ll commence the story on witchcraft along with this very text and end it sometimes/somewhere in the future.




Time of the ritual

In Bosnia, the most powerful and the most dangerous days are considered to be those between 30th of April and the 13th of May in which, accidentally or not, the witches holiday Beltane (1st of May) happens to be. In this very period the regeneration of Nature is at its peak, as well as farming works. In the middle of this period there is a Hidirllez (6th of May) Christian-Moslem holiday of Pagan origin that is traditionally put in the context of Nature and water which is under the influence of the Moon. The worshiping of water as one of the manifestation of the Goddess is well reflected in two customs that are practised even these days in some parts of Bosnia. This is about the celebration of the first Tuesday that precedes Hidirllez Holiday called Boni Tuesday (Boni utorak) entirely devoted to the water treatment (of the sick). During Boni Tuesday, healing springs in the Nature are being visited; the sick drink the water and wash their bodies with it. The first Tuesday after the 6th of May is called Dovni Tuesday (Dovni utorak) and on this day prayers are to be chanted for the wellbeing of individuals and the community as a whole. Clearly speaking; the believers used to pray or, better to say, thank to the ruler of the water (the Moon) for its support, aiming to get its protection throughout the year. Of course, by the appearance of Islam all that referring to the old Cult had to be suppressed and assimilated into the new religion. The Goddess had been changed to the prayer to Allah, although it is clear at the very first glance that those rituals have nothing to do with the Islam.



Light and the darkness



Even today in the 21st century the Bosnian witches follow the ancient guidelines in their magic performance. The part of the day when the Sun is setting and the night falls down between Aksham and Jaci ( „između akšama i jacije“ ) is still considered to be the best period for the magic performance, especially for the love magic.

Analysing in detail the information why the sunset period is the most important period of the day to the Bosnian witches for performance of the magic ritual, is to be sought in the very roots of European witchcraft history. Two of the most important holidays Beltane and Samhain celebrates the beginning of the shiny & dark part of the year. Both holidays are the moments of the most celebrated celebrations and most powerful rituals related to the divinity of the Nature. Similar to that, the end of the day and the beginning of the night represents the miniature alteration of light and the darkness, Beltan and Samhain. According to Bosnian believes , immediately after the sunset Jinny get the power, they wake up and go active, what is coincided with the belief that in the night of Beltan and Samhain the door of the spiritual world open from which various spirits and demons come to he world of human beings.




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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Thu Sep 27, 2012 8:03 pm

The Moon Cult

Although small number of ethnological data on magic inheritance of Bosnia & Herzegovina can be found today, from what such data disclose it can be clearly found that in the past existed several types of cults among which the Sun and the Moon cults dominated.

Even these days, when they see a New Moon, some Bosniak women perform the ritual in which the influence of Islam and the old days Moon cult interlace with each-other. While gazing to the moon, a woman, lifts her arms to the chest level, with her palms pointing the sky, chants 5 Qu'ran-s prayers, after what she wipes her face with the palms. In the continuation, a Moon Cult ritual follows; a woman points her right forefinger to the Moon saying: “The way you Moon grove and transform so renew my form (existence)”. Apart from this ritual there were dozens of similar rituals amongst Bosniak women that were passed from one female generation to another. In another ritual woman prays to the New Moon for a good health of her children, in which case she directly alludes to the Goddess of the Moon; the protector of fertility and children. Another interesting belief alludes to the old times idea on divine characteristic of the Moon, namely; it is believed that when the New Moon is seen for the first time the formula:“ I see New Moon, Mashallah!“ should be chanted, as in contrary a bad magic of “evil eyes” can strike the person. In traditional Bosnian beliefs small kids are most vulnerable to the influence of the evil eyes what leads to the idea that in the old days the New Moon has been considered as a divine child,i.e. freshly (re)born Goddess, which her followers need to protect; in the faze when she has no enough strength and power.





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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Thu Sep 27, 2012 8:05 pm

Witch (or Naletnica, Sihirbazica): According to a Bosniaks belief girls become witches if they wish to cause someone harm, for example, to get revenge on her neighbour, her neighbour's cattle or children. Witches drink children's blood and they take away the milk from cows. While a Mora stops being a Mora as soon as she gets married, the same thing does not apply to witches. They don't lose their title after marriage because they stepped on the Holy Qur'an and they gave their souls to Iblis.

The witch can turn into a large butterfly and enter any house she wants especially the one that has small children in it. When you notice such a butterfly in your house, you must catch it and burn one of its wings on a candle uttering: "Come back tomorrow, I will give you salt" and then let the butterfly out of your house. It is believed that the first woman that comes to that house to ask for some salt is a witch. If she is then told that she visited this house during the night in a form of a butterfly and that she is a witch it is believed that she looses all her demonic powers.



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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Thu Sep 27, 2012 8:06 pm

For a woman to become a sihirbazica (witch) and gain magical powers she needs to take the holly Qur'an and throw it on the ground and stomping it utter: Iblis, help me, I give you my soul, help me in my intentions (or wishes)".




In Bosnia it is believed that after this blasphemous act she becomes a witch: she can cast love spells, exert revenge on her enemies, become invisible...

In the past, according to ethnological writings, young women often became witches in order to become attractive with the help of magic, so that men would want them. Similarly, a woman would become a witch in order to bring her man back, who left her or to separate him from his beloved girlfriend, her rival.

In their practice the Bosnian witches used various ways to cast love spells on men, and the most famous one is the one with white beans. The ritual was performed as follows:

At night, when no one is around, the witch would take an axe and place it behind the entrance door along with nine white beans on which she urinated on. Then the witch goes to the fire place inside the house and places the beans in the ash near the fire. She would then utter: "the beans crackle, bah bahti, the axe behind the door and X in front of it. Die, burst until you come to me, with Gods power and my merit, veledalin amin".

She would then blow three times in the direction of the man and then she would swallow her spit. The witch stirs the beans in a circle with a metal spoon, takes the axe and brings it and places it next to her feet, and then she stirs the beans with the spoon one more time and brings the axe back behind the door. While doing this she utters:

"I am placing the axe behind the door; I am not placing the axe but the brain and wits of X behind the door. Die, burst until you come to me, with God's power and my merit.Veledalin amin".

After that she repeats the following words three times: "basmice, basmice sisters as ordained by God, bring me X there is the dark and the cloud, I am his shining sun and moon. Dark all around him and I am his only light, elzalif amin".

At the end she blows down her bosom three times, turns around and goes to bed.

It is believed that after this ritual the man who was the target of the ritual becomes plagued by an unexplainable longing and wish to see the woman as soon as he can. Because of the love magic the man cannot sleep nor concentrate on anything else. If he resists the urge to visit the witch strange blisters appear on his body and he suffers a high temperature for days. When he visits the woman, and as soon as he lays his eyes on her, all of the symptoms disappear immediately.


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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Thu Sep 27, 2012 8:08 pm

In a long tradition of magic practice in Bosnia & Herzegovina, particularly the practice of love magic, we encounter various aspects of beliefs in the power of spirits, planets, herbs, as well as blood, human secretion, and so on. Alongside it all, an influence of Slavic and oriental beliefs based on animalism is evident, what tells us about the ancient connection between human beings, nature and its forces.

Only some persons used to practice magic throughout the centuries; those who were able of establishing contacts with the invisible entities. Sometimes, such communication was initiated by spiritual forces themselves and more often by human beings performing magic rituals. In Bosnia & Herzegovina, the most known ritual of establishing contact and alliance with the invisible forces is “sacrilege with the Koran”, in which man or woman denies their faith in God and accept devil as their master or partner.

Such power was often desired by women aiming to be successful in love magic practice. In order to acquire magical power and make an alliance with the world of demons (jinni), a girl involved in a dark ritual of initiation must get completely undressed/nude and step with both feet on Koran and say: “Iblis, I surrender to you my soul and I ask the following…” By such an act of sacrilege she gets in union with demons.

The benefits of such a pact for a woman are numerous; a girl (witch) has the power of invisibility, or power to revenge whoever she wants to, or to cast love spells. Various magic rituals aiming to get jinni (spirits/demons) across prove that. One of them is performed by a girl during the night; right before she gets in bed, she knocks the walls saying: “I knocked the wall and 3 jinn’s popped out…”




Traditionally, every witch performs her magic right at the sunset time, although the whole night is adequate for all magic practices, particularly a night before some important holiday when various fortune telling practices are performed too. In that way, a night before Bayram, girls get outside, take a look to the brightest star at the sky and, being very focused, repeat for nine times: “Tell me star, who loves me, tell me is it the one I love too?” Immediately after this they go directly to bed and if they happen to dream about men they love that night; it is a proof that their love is mutual.

The special attention in love magic Bosnian witches pay to a herb called milogled (asarum europaeum) for which they believe it possesses a power to stimulate erotic desires in a monotonic marriage and to fire up love in the heart of the wanted person. Milogled is picked up in the forest in ritual way at the sunset time, in a way that an herb is first encircled by a golden necklace and then pulled up from the soil, along with the root. Since this herb mainly has only two leaves, one is coated by honey and second with butter with magic words being chanted. After that one leaf is placed at one side of the entrance door of the house and second on the other side, in order to get loved person passing between them. The moment beloved person passes through the door; the leaves are to be immediately glued to each other and carried along for some period of time. If this magic is performed for the husband then the mentioned leaves are to be put in his pillow.

A great power to seduce the desired person, according to believes in Bosnia, are with the amulets made by a mullah (Islamic priest). Amulets made for this purpose are normally kept as talismans or burned in fire, beloved person is looked at through them or they are to be buried underneath the beloved person’s threshold. Sometimes, amulet is burned down and ash is to be poured in a drink or meal of a desired person. It is believed that this is very powerful magic. However, its effects often last for 40 days only after what the magic is to be repeated.

In love magic, human secretions (sperm, vaginal secretion) are often used. After sexual intercourse woman picks the sperm of her lower by a kerchief after what she wipes her vagina with it. Then she washes a kerchief in a glass of water and she puts that water in her lover’s coffee or soup with magical words being chanted.



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KomentarNaslov komentara: London Mysteries   Fri Dec 14, 2012 8:33 pm

Anita Salihović is an old lines witch, once a member of a Rroma clan in what is now Bosnia, who is somewhat older than she appears (she seems to be in her mid-twenties, but was born back in the 1760s); she is an example of a witch who abused her powers and became a succubus, reliant on soul-craft and soul consumption to sustain her—she's one of the most dangerous women in Britain, certainly more so than any human woman, but she doesn't want you to know that, and she doesn't particularly want to be, either. She works as a nurse in a coma ward, attempting to manage her need to feed on souls by only stealing the spiritual essence of those who are likely to never return. Although not as strongly tied to witches' magic as she once was, due to her transition into one of the succubi, she nevertheless knows a lot of their history from an intimate perspective, and is a good ally—one who strongly emphasizes the scant few rules all witches must follow. After all, no one knows better what the consequences can be.



history |
Probably the last truly powerful European witch of note, Anita was born Lamia in Ottoman-occupied Bosnia during the year 1762. She came from a Rroma traveller family and experienced enormous persecution, and contrary to stereotype, abilities like hers would not have been welcomed; she hid them for years. When she came into adulthood and married, she had two children, both of whom died of illnesses before reaching their third birthdays. Disillusioned with life and her husband, she abandoned him at the age of twenty, using her light skinned appearance to parley herself a new identity as a Bosniak woman. She met other witches, who recognized her powers and taught her how to use them. Employing both her magic and her social savvy, she quickly charmed many people with not inconsiderable power, and ruthlessly blackmailed heads of government whenever she saw fit—but she also helped them with her magic and influence. She became known as "the lady of dragons", for her sometimes-malicious use of an Ala which was under her control. When she realized she was a witch who could still use soulcraft to its complete extent, something that even by the late 18th century was virtually unheard of, she began to use it against her worst enemies, those she believed deserved it for their cruelty, particularly toward women. She became effectively immortal in the mid-1780s, and continued her reign for the next thirty years. When the Ottoman Empire collapsed, she moved her attentions to England and its assorted territories, even causing chaos during the first World War.


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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Sat Feb 02, 2013 7:05 pm

In accordance with the Old Bosnian believes the Moon Goddess manifested in two forms. The first form was celestial and the second one was a tellurian. In her celestial form the Goddess had the power of magic and healing whilst in its tellurian form she was the goddess of fertility and well being. The text of the old Bosnian Love Chant alludes on her tellurian form, noticeable already in the beginning of the formula “Black Earth Mother, please help me, nor is this charm related to you neither to me, but to my dear…” When Christianity came into Bosnia and after that the Islam, the old cult of Mother Goddess was preserved, thanks to Bogumils, but with time the people forgot the meaning of most of the rituals and customs.

The belief in fairies is the best preserved part of the cult of Mother Goddess, which was kept in the mind of people. It is obvious that the cult could continue to exist only by loosing its religious significance and get a mark of local legends and superstitions. As such, it did not present any threat to monotheism but could have been forwarded from generation to generation. Based upon it, even the titles of Moon Goddess and Mother Earth had been changed into Zlatna (Golden Fairy) and Gorska vila (Forrest Fairy). Both of them have been mentioned in the mythology of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The title Zlatna comes from the word gold which reminds of shinning, gloss or better to say the moonlight. The Gorska vila is the same as the Forrest Fairy and the late title also refers to earth.



What happened to Hasiba B. from a small Northwest village of Bosnia, few years after the World War II, shows the best that the connection between the people and old goddesses never severed. According to her story, once while she was shepherding at the meadow something unusual happened. While walking around she suffered a huge shock for no apparent reason which mostly reassembled the epileptic seizure. She lost the consciousness, her body was completely rigid and she was foaming out of the mouth. The family members found her in such condition and brought her home. Hasiba was lying for three days without consciousness like being in coma. When she woke up on the fourth day, she was completely sound and healthy. That most fascinating thing was that she woke up with the gift of foreboding and healing. Namely, while in coma she was visited by fairies who taught her how to foretell the future by watching into the water, how to perform divination with beans and how to heal the people by ritual of salivanje strahe. The fairies also taught her the various bajalicama (oral charms) that she was supposed to pronounce in the healing rituals. One of the most interesting charms is the one related to the magical healing of the Moon.

If analyzing quite a long text of three oral charms which make a whole, one could write a lot. However for this occasion it is enough to list few interesting ones. The oral charms brings up several times numbers 3 and 9 (3x9=27, which corresponds to the lunar circle), few times word silver, the metal dominated by Moon in astrology, while water as the Moon element is being mentioned 52 times. For better understanding of this text, maybe is good to specify that a year has 52 weeks.

The fight against the evil embodied in physical and psychological diseases starts by activating of two elements: earth and water and after that the fire. It is important to remember that the forth element of air is present constantly through the breath i.e. the speech of a person who chants. As described in the chant, during the battle between the earth and water from one side against the evil, the “doors of the earth” are being open whilst the valleys and hills collide. That creates the power which neutralizes the evil. The appearance of the full moon is quoted at the end of the fist chant.

The second oral charm starts with full moon coming that manifests by the psychical calmness of patient. The full moon waning, the moon phase coming and this change results by Moon giving the water and strength to the patient. It follows by the next: “the patient was born in the night of the full moon and therefore he eliminated any decease during nine days”, “the night comes to the patient as so the help from the water; as the down comes the following day so the sun will arrive to the patient.” The last verse points out that by arrival of the sun the patient will be relieved of physical issues, such as fear, insomnia and anxiety. After, as the sun goes down in the west so the peace and calmness comes to the patient. On the next night the full moon brings the water as the gift to the patient that heals him for the next nine days. The evil withdraws and disappears as the days pass by. At the very end are mentioned the following: the full moon as well as the moon phase that brings the new moon which makes patient resting and neutralize the negative affects.

At the very beginning of the third and last oral charms it is described the arrival of full moon that brings the health i.e. strength to the patient. The most interesting part in this chant is speeding up the moon phases: full moon – moon phase – full moon, whilst element of water is in all verses that follow the moon change. Once again the reborn of the patient is emphasized but this time he is born for the first time during the night of the moon phase and the second time during the full moon. In both cases the moon “gifts” the patient but this time the gifts are three waters and nine days. These gifts have the profound curing effect as described in the following verses: “regenerate its own body; open the eyes; calm the psych; heal the bones and body; the full moon is coming…” In the last 15 sentences it describes exclusively the fight between fire and water, their interaction that bring definite victory over negative influences which caused psychological and physical problems to the patient.




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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Sun Feb 03, 2013 12:42 am

Zahvaljujući bogumilima koji su u jednom dijelu povijesti Bosne i Hercegovine bili dominantna vjera, i uz to veliki poštovaoci prirode, stari kultovi su uspjeli i dalje egzistirati. Njihovom zaslugom danas možemo pratiti tragove drevnog vještičarstva koje i nakon toliko vijekova još uvijek egzistira kroz različita vjerovanja i praksu.



Vještice i njihova religija prirode, obožavanje Boga i Boginje kroz Sunce i Mjesec, duboko su ukorjenjeni u vjerovanja mnogih naroda na prostoru Balkana ali i cijele Europe. Danas analizirajuci etnološke podatke ali i tradicionalna vjerovanja iz Bosne može se otkriti na desetine krajnje interesantnih pojedinosti koje navode na pomisao da se stara religija prirode uspjela oduprijeti kako vremenu tako i pojavi monoteizma. Naravno, da bi se priča o vještičarstvu uspješno i u cjelosti prezentirala potrebno je napisati mnoge stranice i priložiti mnoštvo informacija. No, kako svaki put počinje prvim malim korakom tako ćemo i priču o vještičarstvu započeti sa ovim tekstom a završiti negdje u budućnosti.




Vrijeme rituala


U Bosni se najmoćnijim ali i najopasnijim danima u godini smatra period između 30.aprila i 13.maja u kojem slučajno ili ne nastupa vještičiji praznik Beltane (1.maj). U ovom vremenu obnavljanje prirode je na vrhuncu, kao i poljoprivredni radovi. U središtu ovog perioda nalazi se Jurjevo ili Hidirllez (6.maj) kršćansko-muslimanski praznik paganskog porijekla koji se tradicionalno vezuje za prirodu i vodu koja je pod uticajem Mjeseca. Obožavanje vode kao jedne od manifestacija Boginje odslikava se u jasno u dva običaja koji se praktikuju i danas u nekim dijelovima Bosne. Riječ je o slavljenju prvog utorka koji prethodi Hidirllezu pod nazivom Boni utorak posvećenom u cjelosti liječenju vodom. Na Boni utorak posjećuju se ljekoviti izvori u prirodi, vodom se bolesnici kupaju i piju je. Prvi utorak nakon 6.maja naziva se Dovni utorak i u njemu se moli za zaštitu i blagostanje kako pojedinca tako i cijele zajednice. Jasnije prikazano vjernici su se nekad molili ili bolje rečeno zahvaljivali vladarici vode (Mjesecu) na pomoći i težili da obezbjede njezinu zaštitu i u nastavku godine. Naravno, pojavom islama sve ono što je upućivalo na stari kult moralo je biti potisnuto i asimilirano u novu vjeru. Boginja je zamjenjena molitvom Allahu. No već na prvi pogled jasno je da izvorno ovi rituali nemaju nikakvi dodirni tačaka sa islamom.




Svjetlost i tama



I danas u 21.vijeku bosanske vještice slijede drevne odrednice u svojoj magijskoj praksi. Period dana kada zalazi Sunce i počinje noć, „između akšama i jacije“ i dalje se smatra najpogodnijim vremenom za magijski rad, posebno za ljubavne čarolije. Detaljnije analizirajući informaciju zašto je upravo vrijeme zalaska Sunca i početak noći bosanskim vješticama najvažniji period za praktikovanje rituala treba tražiti u korijenima europskog vještičarstva. Dva najveća praznika Beltane i Samhain označavaju početak svjetle odnosno tamne polovine godine. Oba praznika su vrijeme kada se održavaju najveća slavlja i najmoćniji rituali povezani sa božanstvima prirode. Slično tome kraj dana i početak noći predstavlja minijaturni prikaz stalnog izmjenjivanja svjetlosti i tame, Beltana i Samhaina. Prema bosanskom vjerovanju odmah nakon zalaska Sunca džini dobijaju snagu, bude se i postaju aktivni što se podudara sa vjerovanjem kako se u noćima Beltana i Samhaina otvaraju vrata spiritualnog svijeta iz kojeg dolaze u svijet ljudi razni duhovi i demoni.



Kult Mjeseca


Iako postoji mali broj etnoloških podataka o magijskoj baštini Bosne i Hercegovine iz onog što oni otkrivaju vrlo jasno se može konstatovati kako je u prošlosti egzistiralo nekoliko vrsta kultova među kojima su dominirali kult Sunca i kult Mjeseca.

Kada ugledaju mladi Mjesec još i danas poneke stare Bošnjakinje izvode ritual u kojem se prepliću uticaji Islama i starog kulta Mjeseca. Koncentrisano gledajući u mladi Mjesec žena podignuvši ruke u visini grudi, dlanovima okrenutim ka nebu, izgovara se pet kratkih kur'anskih molitvi a na kraju molitve dlanovima se potare lice. U nastavku dolazi ritual iz kulta Mjeseca kada žena uperi kažiprst desne ruke u pravcu Mjeseca i govori: „Kao što ti rasteš i obnavljaš se Mjeseče tako podstakni i obnovi moje obličje“. Osim ovog rituala među bosanskim ženama egzistira još desetine rituala koji se generacijski prenose i njeguju među ženskim spolom. U drugom ritualu žena nakon molitve mladom Mjesecu moli ga da podari zdravlje djeci u čemu se na direktan način aludira na boginju Mjeseca, zaštitnicu plodnosti i djece. Još jedno zanimljivo vjerovanje aludira na staru ideju o božanskom svojstvu Mjeseca, naime, vjeruje se da kada se prvi puta ugleda novi Mjesec treba reći formulu "Mašallah, vidi mladog mjeseca!", jer ga u protivnom može pogoditi uticaj urokljivih očiju. U tradicionalnom bosanskom vjerovanju mala djeca su najviše podložna negativnom utjecaju urokljivih očiju što dovodi na pomisao kako se u prošlosti novi Mjesec smatrao obličjem božanskog djeteta, tek rođenje Boginje, koju njeni sljedbenici trebaju štititi dok je u fazi kada nema dovoljno snage i moći.


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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Thu Feb 14, 2013 11:25 pm

BOSNIAN CULT OF THE SUN GOD


While the moon symbolised a goddess, the sun symbolised a god i.e. the male principle without which life could also not be possible. According to the description of some folk beliefs and customs about the sun we can assume that he was called god Trzan, Trzance or Tir.



Every large or small place in Bosnia and Herzegovina practiced a cult ritual dedicated to the sun. On the eastern side of a certain place there was always a holly place where people would gather to celebrate the solar deity. There they practiced the rituals dedicated to sun and also ritual games, which imitated the trajectory of the sun, competition and general fun. Such a place was usually called Igrište (a playground) or Trzan. One would always come to the holly place barefoot and one would also travel on foot which corresponded to the ritual reverence of the holly place. What is especially characteristic for the cult of the sun is playing rounds. Rounds is a game where everyone holds hands and makes a circle which symbolises the sun, its eternal cycle but also vivacity and cheerfulness. There are data that claim that until the middle of the last century, the Bosnians went to a place called Vrbanja in central Bosnia to practice Trzan and to organise various games and festivities.

We shouldn't disregard an interesting analysis of folk belief according to which the sun deity had a dualistic nature. We need to enumerate a few examples to make it a bit clearer. For starters we need to mention the belief from north-western part of Bosnia where women would cover the bowl that contained cow milk when they would carry it from one house to the other. They did it out of precaution so that the milk "doesn't see" the sun since it can harm the milk with its spellbound eyes, i.e. the cow that gives milk would lose its capability to produce milk. Milk is a classical woman's symbol of fertility and food which is a characteristic of the goddess. Is there a small part of a larger myth in this belief, a myth that speaks of the possessive nature of a god towards a goddess or is there a small dose of ancient patriarchy, it's hard to conclude.

Besides that people still believe that the sun is malicious and poisonous until 6th of May passes (Hidirlez) and that's why people don't recommend being exposed to the sun for long periods. A similar taboo is connected with the earth for which it is believed that it's not good to sit on it until a certain date passes or better yet the cold part of the year. So we come to a conclusion that everything in nature is harmful to humans until May because after that the danger recedes. Hidirlez or Jurjevo is also called among the folk Mijena, which literally means change, since it symbolised a change of seasons - the end of winter and the cold part of the year and the arrival of summer and the fruitful part of the year. In the past the calendar in Bosnia was divided into two seasons and not four. Therefore it is easy to assume that the cult of the sun god could be celebrated only in the second part of the year which perfectly corresponds to the old pagan division of the calendar year to the light and the dark part. It is necessary to mention that 6th of May is not the original holiday of the sun god that is depicted as returning strength and fertility to nature with his warmth, but the beginning of the month of May. However because of the strong influence of Christianity, which in fact couldn't fully ban the old pagan rituals, the holiday was moved from the 1st May to the 6th and was thus transformed into the holiday of Jurja who slays a dragon. A Dragon or a snake was always the symbols of paganism for the Christian clergy and therefore the symbolic slaying of the dragon should represent the destruction of the old religion. But, this Christian myth was also taken from a much older myth from the Iranian religion and myth about god Mithras who according to legend slays a bull out of whose dead body nature sprouts, especially grain which is necessary for the human race. However, for this text it is more important that Mithras was the sun god. The continuity of sun worship according to some available data never lost its basics but was only supplemented with new beliefs which came along with the Slavs but also with the members of the Persian religion. How strong was their influence is best depicted by the shrine of Mithras in Jajce which was built in 3rd century AD.



Of the other folk belief about the sun we need to mention those that can be classified as imitative magic based on the invocation and pleas for help and blessings from the sun. Today also Stravarke in Bosnia turn their hands clockwise while doing the melting of lead ritual, it is said that they are "following the sun". Also when they need to throw three embers into the bowl with water the Stravarka does it by first encircling the ember three times also in a clockwise direction. The above mentioned rule clearly shows the folk belief about the beneficial power of the sun when it comes to healing and annulling negative influences. However this isn't only practiced during the lead ritual, every time when one wants to do a magical step which needs to have a positive outcome or some benefit like giving to the poor, turning the beans when fortunetelling, kneading bread, etc. the rule of making three circles clockwise is always adhered.

In the past every wedding procession followed this holy rule which was understood as being beneficial for the wedded couple. That's why the wedding procession always went from the bride's house towards the groom's following the "sun route".

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KomentarNaslov komentara: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Sat Mar 23, 2013 11:58 pm

Vještice i njihova religija prirode, obožavanje Boga i Boginje kroz Sunce i Mjesec, duboko su ukorjenjeni u vjerovanja mnogih naroda na prostoru Balkana ali i cijele Europe. Danas analizirajuci etnološke podatke ali i tradicionalna vjerovanja iz Bosne može se otkriti na desetine krajnje interesantnih pojedinosti koje navode na pomisao da se stara religija prirode uspjela oduprijeti kako vremenu tako i pojavi monoteizma. Naravno, da bi se priča o vještičarstvu uspješno i u cjelosti prezentirala potrebno je napisati mnoge stranice i priložiti mnoštvo informacija. No, kako svaki put počinje prvim malim korakom tako ćemo i priču o vještičarstvu započeti sa ovim tekstom a završiti negdje u budućnosti.


Vrijeme rituala


U Bosni se najmoćnijim ali i najopasnijim danima u godini smatra period između 30.aprila i 13.maja u kojem slučajno ili ne nastupa vještičiji praznik Beltane (1.maj). U ovom vremenu obnavljanje prirode je na vrhuncu, kao i poljoprivredni radovi. U središtu ovog perioda nalazi se Jurjevo ili Hidirllez (6.maj) kršćansko-muslimanski praznik paganskog porijekla koji se tradicionalno vezuje za prirodu i vodu koja je pod uticajem Mjeseca. Obožavanje vode kao jedne od manifestacija Boginje odslikava se u jasno u dva običaja koji se praktikuju i danas u nekim dijelovima Bosne. Riječ je o slavljenju prvog utorka koji prethodi Hidirllezu pod nazivom Boni utorak posvećenom u cjelosti liječenju vodom. Na Boni utorak posjećuju se ljekoviti izvori u prirodi, vodom se bolesnici kupaju i piju je. Prvi utorak nakon 6.maja naziva se Dovni utorak i u njemu se moli za zaštitu i blagostanje kako pojedinca tako i cijele zajednice. Jasnije prikazano vjernici su se nekad molili ili bolje rečeno zahvaljivali vladarici vode (Mjesecu) na pomoći i težili da obezbjede njezinu zaštitu i u nastavku godine. Naravno, pojavom islama sve ono što je upućivalo na stari kult moralo je biti potisnuto i asimilirano u novu vjeru. Boginja je zamjenjena molitvom Allahu. No već na prvi pogled jasno je da izvorno ovi rituali nemaju nikakvi dodirni tačaka sa islamom.



Svjetlost i tama

I danas u 21.vijeku bosanske vještice slijede drevne odrednice u svojoj magijskoj praksi. Period dana kada zalazi Sunce i počinje noć, „između akšama i jacije“ i dalje se smatra najpogodnijim vremenom za magijski rad, posebno za ljubavne čarolije. Detaljnije analizirajući informaciju zašto je upravo vrijeme zalaska Sunca i početak noći bosanskim vješticama najvažniji period za praktikovanje rituala treba tražiti u korijenima europskog vještičarstva. Dva najveća praznika Beltane i Samhain označavaju početak svjetle odnosno tamne polovine godine. Oba praznika su vrijeme kada se održavaju najveća slavlja i najmoćniji rituali povezani sa božanstvima prirode. Slično tome kraj dana i početak noći predstavlja minijaturni prikaz stalnog izmjenjivanja svjetlosti i tame, Beltana i Samhaina. Prema bosanskom vjerovanju odmah nakon zalaska Sunca džini dobijaju snagu, bude se i postaju aktivni što se podudara sa vjerovanjem kako se u noćima Beltana i Samhaina otvaraju vrata spiritualnog svijeta iz kojeg dolaze u svijet ljudi razni duhovi i demoni.



Kult Mjeseca


Iako postoji mali broj etnoloških podataka o magijskoj baštini Bosne i Hercegovine iz onog što oni otkrivaju vrlo jasno se može konstatovati kako je u prošlosti egzistiralo nekoliko vrsta kultova među kojima su dominirali kult Sunca i kult Mjeseca.

Kada ugledaju mladi Mjesec još i danas poneke stare Bošnjakinje izvode ritual u kojem se prepliću uticaji Islama i starog kulta Mjeseca. Koncentrisano gledajući u mladi Mjesec žena podignuvši ruke u visini grudi, dlanovima okrenutim ka nebu, izgovara se pet kratkih kur'anskih molitvi a na kraju molitve dlanovima se potare lice. U nastavku dolazi ritual iz kulta Mjeseca kada žena uperi kažiprst desne ruke u pravcu Mjeseca i govori: „Kao što ti rasteš i obnavljaš se Mjeseče tako podstakni i obnovi moje obličje“. Osim ovog rituala među bosanskim ženama egzistira još desetine rituala koji se generacijski prenose i njeguju među ženskim spolom. U drugom ritualu žena nakon molitve mladom Mjesecu moli ga da podari zdravlje djeci u čemu se na direktan način aludira na boginju Mjeseca, zaštitnicu plodnosti i djece. Još jedno zanimljivo vjerovanje aludira na staru ideju o božanskom svojstvu Mjeseca, naime, vjeruje se da kada se prvi puta ugleda novi Mjesec treba reći formulu "Mašallah, vidi mladog mjeseca!", jer ga u protivnom može pogoditi uticaj urokljivih očiju. U tradicionalnom bosanskom vjerovanju mala djeca su najviše podložna negativnom utjecaju urokljivih očiju što dovodi na pomisao kako se u prošlosti novi Mjesec smatrao obličjem božanskog djeteta, tek rođenje Boginje, koju njeni sljedbenici trebaju štititi dok je u fazi kada nema dovoljno snage i moći.

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KomentarNaslov komentara: BOSANSKI NARODNI KALENDAR   Sat Mar 23, 2013 11:59 pm

Bosanski narodni (poljoprivredni) kalendar seže čak u staru eru bosanskih Ilira, naših predaka. Tvorac kalendara nije poznat. Zna se da ga je stvorio i koristio zemljoradnik. U njemu se mogu prepoznati neki datumi julijanskog kalendara koji je ustoličen 45.godina prije nastanka kršćanstva. Nastankom kršćanstva ovim pojedinim datumima data su imena svetaca. Dolaskom Slovena, pagana, naroda poznatog po zemljoradnji, datumi su imali drugi naziv, ali su uvijek ostajali isti. Narodni kalendar koristio se neprestano, koristen je u bogumilsko doba, bio je u upotrebi i u osmansko doba te svoju primarnu svrhu nalazi i u današnje vrijeme. Pored ovog u Bosni se strogo pratio i hidžretski kalendar. To su činile hodže i drugi muslimanski učenjaci, da bi se znalo kada je koji važan vjerski datum (Nevruz, Ramazan, Bajram, Nova godina, etc). Hidžretski kalendar nije bio praktičan za određivanje poljoprivredni radova jer se svake solane godine pomjerao za deset dana, ali je bio povoljan za post u mjesecu Ramazanu jer se pomjerao kroz sva godišnja doba.Treba napomenuti da je u Bosni za vrijeme Osmanlija bio službeni hidžretski kalendar sve do dolaska Austrougarske monarhije kada je u upotrebu uveden gregorijanski kalendar.

Bosanski narodni kalendar počinje od 21.decembra kada po narodnom vjerovanju dan počinje dužini onoliko koliko pijetao može skočiti sa kućnog praga. Od ovog datuma nastupa Zehmerija (turski Zehmeri) najhladniji period zime koji traje 40 dana. Dok traje Zehmerija izbjegava se piti hladna voda u strahu od prehlade i gripe.

Januar: u narodu se januar naziva najdužim mjesecom u godini. Od 17.januara počinje se računanje sedmica do Hidirleza (6.maj), njih ukupno 17. Prema njima se određuje sjetva.

Period od 31.01 - 20.03. naziva se Hamsin i on predstavlja drugu polovinu zime.

Veljača - od 14.februara do 15. marta, narod vjeruje ukoliko na početku Veljače pada snijeg, bude "pun"-snježan, da je to dobar znak za plodnost godine, posebno za dobar prinos pšenice. Narod kaže da se u toku Veljače tuku bura i jug. Ono što je posebno za Veljaču jest da ona nastupa tačno u podne 14.februara i završava u podne 15.marta kada nastupa Baba. Prema narodnoj predaji Veljača je rekla da će ostaviti onakvo vrijeme kakvo je zatekla a slaže li, tvrdi se u narodu, biće u ljeto nevremena.

Mjereno po nedjeljama ili heftama Veljača počinje polovinom dvanaeste a završava polovinom osme nedjelje do Jurjeva. Zadnji sedam hefti do Jurjeva dobilo je svoje karakteristične nazive: za šestu se kaže da "zameta", peta hefta "pometa" a treća nedjelja se naziva "najveća" jer se u njoj sve sije.

Džemre (turski Cemreler), značenje ovog naziva je "ugalj koji gori u vatri", vjeruje se da su Džemre zapravo sunčeva toplina koja počinje intezivno da utječe na Zemlju i budi prirodu.

-prva džemra pojavi se oko 20.februara i zagrije zrak. Obično tada puhne južni vjetar i naglo otopli.

-druga džemra pojavi se oko 27.februara i zagrije vodu te povisi njen nivo. Voda u rijekama se više ne zamrzava.

-treća džemra pojavi se 6.marta i zagrije zemlju. Snijeg se brže topi i nestaje a iz zemlje počinje rasti prva trava.

Odmah nakon prve džemre narod ima običaj da zareže korijenje breze i na njega postavi otvor staklenih flaša kako bi u njih kapao brezin sok. Flaša u tom položaju ostaje do treće džemre. Sakupljeni sok se koristi za liječenje, posebno bolesnih bubrega.


Mart: u ovom mjesecu počinju poljoprivredni radovi, siju se krompiri, luk, salata. Nakon treće Džemre voćke se obrezuju i kaleme.

Baba - 0d 15.marta do 21.marta vlada Baba, nestabilno vrijeme kada se u toku dana izmjeni nekoliko vremenskih pojava. Baba se u narodu opisuje kao "goropadna", "pogana", "leteća"... Kako narodna predaja pripovijeda, Baba je rekla da može biti vremenski duga kao Veljača da bi smrznula dijete u ženi i tele u kravi, lonac bi na šparetu napola vrio a napola bio zaleđen.

Did ili Did Grgo - od 21.marta do 28.marta, period od sedam dana u kojima vlada Did, za njega narod tvrdi da je milostiviji i u nekim krajevima Bosne počinje sjetva krompira.

Did je ime (titula) svakog bogumilskog svećenika u Bosni a Baba je bio naziv za njegovu ženu koja je zajedno sa mužem pomagala zajednici liječeći biljem, asistirajući pri porodima, ili je proricala sudbinu. Kako su Bošnjaci prije dolaska Islama bili pripadnici bogumilstva ne treba da čudi što su očuvali sjećanje na staru vjeru. U narodu egzistira na desetine priča, uglavnom komičnih, o Babi i Didu te njihovim zgodama i nezgodama. Po tome možemo utvrditi kako su uživali veliko poštovanje među narodom Bosne i Hercegovine.

21.marta nekada se proslavljao i Nevruz, perzijska Nova godina, koja se u Bosni nazivala Sultan Nevruz.

Kablići - 29.mart do 31.mart


Stablići - 1.april do 3.april

Štapići -4.april do 7.aprila

Iako sam od djetinjstva znao za Stabliće, Kablići i Štapiće nikada mi niko nije mogao sa sigurnošću kazati što oni u suštini znače. Do tog saznanja došao sam neku deceniju kasnije, kada mi je Zehida Družanović (umrla 2006.god), ispričala da se taj period u narodu Cazinske krajine označavao izjavom „Hajd', medeti, povuci rep!“. Tom se izjavom pozivao komšija u pomoć da izvuče mrtvu kravu iz štale. Naime, zbog dugih bosanskih zima, koje su u prošlosti bile česta pojava, dešavalo se da usljed nestanka sijena i druge hrane za stoku, ona umre od gladi. Time je postalo jasno da su Stablići, Kablići i Štapići množina za stap, kabao i štap tojest mećajicu kojom se udara prikupljeni kajmak u stapu kako bi se „izmelo“ maslo i mlaćenica. Zbog dugih zima i usljed umiranja krave, za koju se pripovijedalo da hrani pola kuća tojest familije, kuća bi ostajala bez mlijeka i masla pa otud vjerovanje da se u tim danima čuju udarci u praznu posudu tojest stap i kabao.


Mučenjaci ili Siromasi - period od 8.aprila pa do jula, u njemu se narod mučio (otud i naziv) do žetve pšenice tojest novog žita. Oni su period proljetne neimaštine te je stoga i u narodu Cazinske krajine nastala izreka za taj period: "Lako je biti jesen, daj budi proljeće!" jer u jesen ima svega na trpezi od voća i povrća te žita a u proljeće nema ništa.

April: u aprilu počinje sjetva kukuruza. Stari Bošnjaci čekali su da se žaba počne oglašavati jer bi tada klima bila pogodna za sjetvu. Narod prati i ostale znakove iz prirode pa tako vjeruje da čim počne bukva sa listanjem da se može početi sa sjetvom žita bez straha od mraza. Polovinom aprila zarezivala se vinova loza i na nju postavljao otvor flaša kako bi sve do Hidirleza u nju kapao sok iz loze. Ovim sokom su djevojke i žene mazale kosu kako bi im bila zdrava i brže rasla.

Maj : prvog četvrta u mjesecu maju počinjalo je sijanje graha.

Hidirlez or Jurjevo (6.maj) - prema narodnom kalendaru od ovog dana počinje ljeto i može se kupati u rijeka i jezerima. U periodu od 6.maja do 13.maja puštaju se prvi rojevi pčela.

Juni: prvi sedam dana mjeseca juna naziva se "bijela sedmica" jer u njoj se počinju ubirati bijele pečurke takozvane lisičarke (Cantharellus cibarius) po šumi. Početkom juna siju se lipe masirače (bijele bundeve), bijela repa i rodakva. Za ovu sedmicu karakteristična je i zabrana da se u vrtu guli ili vadi iz zemlje luk " jer bi se zbog toga mogao početi kvariti i gnjiti!".

August: u narodu se vjeruje da ovaj mjesec djeci i starim ljudima izaziva dijareju. Kako bi to spriječile majke bace neki dio dječije odjeće pod točkove konjske zaprege koja prevozi pšenične snopove. U prvim danima augusta iz zemlje se vadi bijeli i crveni luk.

Aliđun - 2.august: od ovog dana narod vjeruje da ljeto izgubi svoju toplinu i polako se pretvara u jesen, voda u rijekama postaje hladna za kupanje.

Septembar: u ovom mjesecu krompir se vadi iz zemlje van, kukuruz se bere na polju, grožđe dozrijeva. Desi li se da u septembru ima procvjetalih jagoda narod vjeruje da će biti duga i topla jesen.

Oktombar: u prvoj i drugoj sedmici oktombra sije se pšenica.

Kasum - 8.novembar: od ovog dana nastaje zima. Na ovaj dan se izmiruju svi dugovi i prestaje zakup zemlje.
Kasum je naziv za novembar kod Turaka, ali riječ je arapska i znači "nešto što se dijeli" tojest prestaje topli dio godine i počinje onaj hladni, zimski.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Sun Mar 24, 2013 12:00 am

Paganska pozadina narodnog kalendara


Kako je kršćanstvo preuzelo većinu paganskih praznika i običaja stvarajući kult svetaca, u ovom analiziranju drevnog bosanskog kalendara nećemo posvećivati prostor i vrijeme otkrivajući koji je svetac preuzeo ulogu nekog paganskog božanstva već ćemo se fokusirati na važnije, originalne, segmente koji su u osnovi ključni elementi za pravilnu deskripciju narodnog kalendara čiji sadržaj prati stvaralački ciklus prirode. Jedino što je važno napomenuti da je kršćanstvo neke datume pomjerilo za nekoliko dana prije ili kasnije od originalnog datuma paganskog praznika kako bi mu na takav način pridalo svoj kršćanski značaj a umanjilo onaj drevni, paganski.

Istraživači antičke Bosne došli su do arheoloških dokaza koji govore o mješanju keltskih religioznih kultova sa onim ilirskim, posebno Japodima, plemena koje je naseljavalo teritorij sjeverozapadne Bosne. Analizom narodnog kalendara tog dijela BiH, koji se vijekovima prenosio usmenom predajom, mogu se otkriti utjecaji keltske religije, točnije kulta plodnosti, koja je sastavni dio onog što danas poznajemo pod pojmom europsko vještičarstvo.

Deskripcijom određenih kalendarskih datuma i vjerovanja vezanih za njih moguće je relativno uspješno rekonstruirati drevni kult trojne boginje Brigid koja se smatra Velikom Majkom. Njoj je bila posvećena pšenica od koje su se pravili različiti profilaktički simboli čija je namjena bila da čuvaju familiju od zla. Herodot u jednom od svojih opisa Ilira navodi kako ilirske žene jednoj svojoj boginji prinose kao žrtvu pšeničnu slamu. Ovo nesumnjivo potvrđuje identično vjerovanje Kelta i Ilira.

U narodnom kalendaru naglašava se dualizam, prožimanje negativnog i pozitivnog razdoblja u kojima priroda počinje i završava svoj krug plodnosti, koji je pod zaštitom boginje Majke i Boga Sunca. Po uzoru na antički i bosanski narodni kalendar dijeli se samo na dva godišnja doba tojest ljeto i zimu jer je u svojoj osnovi poljoprivrednog karaktera i prati prirodne cikluse. Prema shvatanju bosanskog naroda ljeto počinje u maju i završava u novembru (Beltane-Samhain), a onda bi nastupala zima, kada bi sa zimskim solsticijem počela manifestacija boginje Majke u njena tri oblika.

Zehmerija, Veljača i Baba detaljnije analizirano, osim ženskih imena i karakteristika, simbolišu i tri životna stadija koja neobično podsjećaju na paganski kult boginje Majke, koja se slavila kao trojna božica - Djevojka, Majka i Starica. Naziv Zehmerija, za razliku od druga dva imena, ne potječe iz Bosne već je dio turske narodne tradicije koji je naš narod prihvatio i uklopio u svoju predaju. No, dok je kod turskog naroda Zehmerija zapravo Zehmeri ili Zehmerir i po tom gledištu naziv aludira na muški spol, u Bosni je Zehmerija oduvijek smatrana ženskom. Tome u prilog ide naziv " Crna Zehmerija" koja predstavlja najhladnije dana zime. U toku trajanja tog perioda u prošlosti se znalo desiti da se ljudima, usred izrazito niski temperatura, smrznu prsti na ruci ili nozi.


Zehmerija

Vještičiji praznik Yule koji pada 21.decembra i više nego idealno se poklapa sa kalendarskim datum početka Zehmerije. Od zimskog solsticija dan počinje dužiti onoliko koliko pijetao može skočiti sa kućnog praga. U ovom narodnom vjerovanju jasno se aludira na kult sunca, čije je pijetao simbol, jer u paganizmu nakon 21.decembra sunce se "rađa" i najavljuje postepen početak toplijih dana.
Boginja je rodila sina, Boga, koji će joj na kraju postati ljubavnik i otac djeteta u sljedećem ciklusu. Ona je umorna i iscrpljenja te se zbog toga odmara i oporavlja. Zbog toga u prirodi vlada hladnoća i snijeg. Boginja se poput bosanske žene odmara 40 dana (četeresnica) nakon porođaja, koliko traje Zehmerija, i u tom vremenu narodna predaja bilježi razne tabue koji jasno aludiraju na porođaj. Navodno, dok traje Zehmerija ljudi su izbjegavali putovati noću, kako ne bi prošli nogama preko mjesta na kojem demoni slave i objeduju što u ovom periodu u godini imaju najveću moć. Od takvih susreta ljudi sa džinima čovjek može psihički i fizički oboljeti. Identična zabrana u Bosni se odnosila na ženu koja se porodi, njoj se zabranjivalo da izlazi napolje noću zbog straha da je ne napadnu demoni, pred čijim napadima ona u prvih 40 dana nakon porođaja nema imunitet.


Veljača

Kalendarski Veljača se za razliku od Zehmerije ne poklapa sa drugim paganskim praznikom Imbolc, koji se obilježava od sumraka 31.januara pa do 2.februara, ali zato on dolazi na samom kraju Zehmerije, i taj podatak ne treba zanemariti. Imbolc je vrijeme kada se keltska trojna boginja Brigid prvi put pojavila kao djevojka i vodila ljubav sa mladim bogom sunca rođenim na najkraći dan u godini.
Razlika u 12 dana možda je splet okolnosti tojest pogreške u usmenom prenošenju sa generacije na generaciju. No, opet ne treba ignorisati ni činjenicu da Zehmerija, koja traje 40 dana, započinje 21.decembra a završava 1.februara. Naziv Veljača vjerovatno dolazi od Velja, Vela ili Velika čime se aludira da je Djevojka postala Majka, i time je dobila titulu Velike, one koja donosi život. Njen simbol je pun Mjesec.
Boginja se oporavila od porođaja. Bog je ojačao i njegova toplina postepeno prodire u zemlju i tako se javljaju najraniji počeci proljeća. Njegova moć neprestano raste, svjetlost se probija kroz mrak i time dani postaju sve duži. Priroda se polako budi, što se prema bosanskom kalendaru očituje borbom sjevernog i južnog vjetra. Boginja pokazuje svoj blagoslov, narodna predaja tvrdi ukoliko početak Veljače tojest 14.,15. i 16.februar budu obilježeni padavinom snijega predstoji plodna godina, posebno za urod pšenice, inače simbol Boginje.


Baba

Baba, kako joj i sam naziv govori, simbolizuje Staricu. Isto tako, paganski praznik Ostare pada na proljetnu ravnodnevicu baš na zadnji dan sedmodnevnog ciklusa kojim vlada Baba. I time bi se moglo kazati kako taj zadnji dan simboliše kraj životnog ciklusa. U ovom periodu boginja Majka je začela dijete tojest sina koje će se roditi 21.decembra. Baba se vrlo lako može prevesti i kao trudnica jer se u bosanskom narodu termin zbabna odnosi na trudnicu a babine na tradicionalni posjet ženi nakon porođaja. Narodni opis karaktera Babe jasno aludira na klasične simptome koje žene imaju tokom trudnoće - ona je samovoljna, nestalna, sklona čestoj promjeni raspoloženje... Usljed takvih okolnosti boginja Majka ponekad može ljudima uskratiti plodnost i prouzročiti sušu ili godinu sa čestim nevremenom.
Boginja u ovom periodu prekriva zemlju sa plodnošću, budi je iz sna, a Bog raste i polako dostiže zrelost. Sati dana i noći su jednaki, i svjetlost polako nadvladava tamu. Počinju poljoprivredni radovi. Sunce je na svojoj najsjevernijoj tački.
Završetkom Babe nastupa sedmodnevni period u kojem vlada Did, muški princip, ili bolje rečeno Bog kojeg je Boginja rodila, on je sada dostigao zrelost i dijeli ljudima milost, što opisuje narodno kazivanje o njemu: "Did je milostiv jer se u njemu može početi sa sjetvom krompira". Sjeme se stavlja u zemlju, koja treba da podari urod, plodnost. Dominantni utjecaj Boga vidi se i u narednim mjesecima.


Jurjevo (Hidirlez)

U paganskoj tradiciji Beltane simbolizuje početak svjetle polovine godine tojest dolazak ljeta. Kod Kelta to je praznik posvećenog bogu svjetlosti (sunca) čiji je simbol vatra. Zbog toga se svake godine na Jurjevo ili Hidirlez u Bosni rano ujutro, prije izlaska sunca, pali vatra u dvorištu kao znak dobrodošlice suncu koje će se pojaviti na istoku. Zbog jakog monoteističkog utjecaja taj ritual se tumačio odbranom od najezde zmija, kako bi se tako zamaskiran mogao slobodno praktikovati kroz vijekove.


Aliđun

Lughnassan koji traje od 31.juli do 2.august drevni je praznik žetve. U Bosni u tom periodu nastupa Aliđun za kojeg narod kaže da označava vrhunac ljeta u kojem vlada blagostanje zbog obilja plodova ali i žita. U prošlosti bosanski narod je posjećivao kultna mjesta u prirodi, poznata kao dovišta, i tu se molio Bogu i organizirao slavlje popraćeno zabavom i uživanjem u hrani. Time se sljedila stara paganska tradicija slavljenja praznika žetve i zahvalnosti na plodovima prirode. Dovište Lastavica je do polovine dvadesetog stoljeća bilo kultno mjesto gdje su se okupljali Bošnjaci povodom 2.augusta i praktikovali obred klanja jagnjadi, što je prema mnogim etnolozima običaj koji direktno potječe iz ilirskog vremena i označava "žrtvovanje djevice đavolu tojest određenom božanstvu od kojeg se tražila milost i blagoslov u cilju osiguranja plodnosti".


Kasum

Samhain (31.10-02.11), označava kraj ljeta i svjetlog dijela godine nakon kojeg dolazi zima i tama. U narodu se on naziva Kasum, turski naziv za novembar. Naziv kasum potječe iz arapskog jezika i znači "nešto što se dijeli". Kraj toplog perioda i početak zime najbolje potvrđuje narodna izreka: "Jurjevo donosi zeleni list a Kasum bijeli snijeg!" Tu prestaje narodni bosanski kalendar.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Fri Mar 29, 2013 9:07 am

The Bosnian national (agricultural) calendar spans back to the old era. The maker of the calendar is unknown. It is known that it was created and used by a farmer. Some dates from the Julian calendar, which was created 45 years BCE, can be recognised in the Bosnian calendar. After Christianity came, some of these dates received names of saints. With the arrival of the Slavs, pagans, people known for agriculture, the dates had different names, but they always remained the same. The folk calendar was used continuously, it was used during the time of the Bogumil's, it was also used during the Ottoman period, and it even serves a purpose today. Besides this, in Bosnia the Hijri calendar was also strictly observed. It was done by the Imam's and other religious scholars, in order to be aware of the important religious dates (Ramadan, Bayram, New year, etc.). The Hijri calendar was impractical when it came to agriculture, since it moved forward ten days every solar year, however it was practical when it came to fasting during the month of Ramadan since it moved through all the seasons. We need to mention that the Hijri calendar was the official calendar in Bosnia during the Ottoman period, until the Austro-Hungarian period when they brought the Gregorian calendar.

The Bosnian folk calendar begins on December 21st, the folk belief holds that on that date, the day extends as much as a rooster can jump from a doorstep. From this date on comes the Zehmeriya (Turkish: Zehmeri) the coldest part of winter that lasts for 40 days. While Zehmeriya lasts people avoid drinking cold water in fear of catching a cold.

January: the folk call January the longest moth in the year. From January 17th the counting of the weeks until Hidirlez begins (May 6th), 17 weeks total. This is what determines the sowing.
The period from January 31st until March 20th is called Hamsin and it represents the second part of winter.

February- from February 14th until March 14th is Veljača, the folk belief is that if snow falls in the beginning of the Veljača that the year will be fertile, and that wheat will have a good yield.

Djemre (Turkish: Cemreler), the meaning of this word is "burning charcoal", it is believed that Djemre is the sun's heat which starts to have an intense impact on the land and it starts awakening the nature.
-The first Djemra appears on February 20th and heats the air. That's when the Southern wind starts blowing and it becomes milder.
-The second Djemra appears on February 27th heats up the water and raises its level. The water in the river doesn't freeze from this point on.
-The third Djemra appears on March 6th and heats up the land. The snow melts fast and the first grass starts sprouting.
(Right after the first Djemra the people have a custom to notch the roots of the birch and put a glass bottle so that the juices of the birch flow in it. The bottle stays in that position until the third Djemra. The collected juices are used for medicinal purposes, especially kidney diseases)

March: the agricultural works begin during this month, the potatoes, onions and salads are sown. After the third Djemra the fruit trees are notched and inoculated.

Grandma (Baba)- from March 15th until March 21st is the period of the grandma, the unstable period when a couple of weather phenomena change in one day.
Grandpa (Did,Djed)- from March 21st until March 28th is the period of the grandpa, the folk beliefs are that it is more merciful and people start sowing potatoes during this period.

(“Did” or Grandpa is a name (title) of each Bogumil priest in Bosnia and “Baba” (grandma) is the name of his wife who helped her husband and the community by healing with herbs, assisting in births, or foretelling fortunes. Since the Bosnian people were Bogumils before Islam came, it is then no mystery why they kept some of the memories of their old religion. Among the folk there are numerous stories, mostly comical, about Did and Baba and their adventures. By them, we can discern that they commanded great respect among the Bosnian people.)

Kablići- March 29th until March 31st
Stablići- April 1st until April 3rd
Štapići- April 4th until April 7th
(All three names are connected to the past of Bosnia when the winters were very long and they usually lasted until the middle of April. During that period the cattle used to die because of lack of food)

Mučenjaci- period from April 8th until July, this is the period when people suffered (hence the name) until the sowing of the wheat.

April: during April the corn is sown. The old Bosniaks would wait for the frogs to start making noise, which would be a sign that the climate is optimal for sowing. The people also followed other signs of the nature, and therefore it is believed that when the beech tree starts sprouting leaves that one can begin sowing grain without fearing frost. During the middle of April the grapevine was notched and a bottle was placed underneath it for the juices to drip in it until Hidirlez. This juice was used by women to smear on their hair so it would be healthy and grow quicker.

May: in the first quarter of May the sowing of beans begins.
Hidirlez or Jurjevo (May 6th)- according to the national calendar from this day forward, the summer begins and the swimming in lakes and ponds can begin. In the period from May 6th until May 13th the first swarms of bees are let loose.

June: the first seven days of June are called "bijela nedjelja” or “white week" because the white mushrooms (Cantharellus cibarius) are picked in the forests at that time. In the beginning of June , pumpkins, turnips and radishes are sown.

August: it is believed that this month gives diarrhea to children and the elderly. To prevent this from happening, the mothers would take some clothes of their children and throw it under the wheel of carriages that carry wheat bundles. In the first days of August the onion and garlic are picked.
Aliđun- August 2nd: the folk belief is that from this day on, the summer loses its heat and slowly turns into autumn, the water in the rivers begins to cool down and there can be no more swimming.

September: during this month the potato is reaped, the corn as well and the grapes start ripening. If some strawberries sprout in September, then it is believed that the autumn will be long and mild.

October: in the first and second week of October wheat is sown.

Kasum - November 8th: from this day onward, winter starts. On this day, all loans are settled, and leases of land end. Kasum is Turkish the name of November. The Arabic word kasim means 'something that divides“.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Fri Mar 29, 2013 9:07 am

Pagan background of the folk calendar


As Christianity took over most of the pagan holidays and customs creating a cult of saints, in this analysis of ancient Bosnian calendar we won't waste space and time by discovering which saint took over which role of a pagan deity, instead we will focus on more important, original segments which are in its basis key principles for punctual description of the folk calendar whose content follows the creative cycle of nature. The only thing that is worth mentioning is that Christianity changed moved some dates a few days earlier or later from the original date of the pagan holidays in order to give it a Christian meaning and diminish the ancient, pagan one.

Researchers of ancient Bosnia came across archaeological evidence which point out that there was mixing between the Celtic religious cults with those of the Illyrians, especially with the Japodi, a tribe that inhabited the north-western part of Bosnia. By analysing the folk calendar of that part of Bosnia, which was transferred orally from one generation to the other, we can discover the traces of Celtic religion, the cult of fertility to be more exact, which is a staple part of what we know today as European witchcraft.

By describing particular calendar dates and beliefs connected to them we can relatively successfully reconstruct the ancient cult of triple goddess Brigid which is also considered the Grand Mother. Wheat was dedicated to her out of whom prophylactic symbols were created with intent to keep the family safe from evil. Herodotus in one of his descriptions of the Illyrians mentions that Illyrian women bring wheat as a sacrifice to one of their goddesses. This undoubtedly confirms the similar belief of the Celt and the Illyrians.

In the folk calendar dualism is emphasized, the permeation of the negative and the positive period during which nature begins and ends its circle of fertility, which is under the protection of the goddess mother and god sun. Modelled after the antique folk calendar, the Bosnian is divided on only two seasons i.e. summer and winter because it is in its essence agricultural and follows the natural cycles. According to the belief of the Bosnian folk summer begins in May and ends in November (Beltane-Samhain), and then comes the winter, when would the manifestation of the goddess mother, in her three forms, commence together with the winter solstice.

Zehmerija, Veljača and Baba we will analyse in more detail, besides female names and characteristics, they symbolise three life stages which are undoubtedly reminiscent of the pagan cult of the goddess mother, which was celebrated as triple goddess - girl, mother and old woman. The name Zehmerija, unlike the other two names, doesn't originate from Bosnia, it is a part of the Turkish folk tradition which was accepted by our people and merged into the tradition. But, while Zehmerija actually Zehmeri or Zehmerir in Turkish alludes to males, in Bosnia Zehmerija was always considered to be a female name. This is supported by "Crna Zehmerija" (Black Zehemerija), which represents the coldest winter days. During that period in the past people tended to get frozen fingers or toes, in case of very low temperatures.

Zehmerija

Witches holiday Yule which is exactly on 21st December and more than ideally it corresponds to the calendar date of the beginning of Zehmerija. From the winter solstice the day starts to get longer by the amount that the rooster can jump from the house doorstep. In this folk belief there is a clear allusion to the sun cult, whose symbol is a rooster, because in paganism after 21st of December the sun is "born" and announces a gradual arrival of warmer days.

The goddess gave birth to a son, god, which will eventually become her lover and father of the child in the next cycle. She is tired and exhausted and that's why she's resting and recuperating. That's why it's cold and snowy in nature. The goddess like the Bosnian woman rests for 40 days (četeresnica) after birth, which is also how long the Zehmerija is, and during that time the folk tradition records various taboos which clearly allude to birth. Apparently, while the Zehmerija lasts the people would avoid travelling by night, in order not to cross places where the demons celebrate and dine which also has the greatest influence during that part of year. From such encounters between people and the Jinn, humans can fall ill both physically and mentally. A similar prohibition pertains to a woman who gave birth; she was prohibited from going out at night from fear of a demon attack, since she has no immunity to them during the first 40 days after birth.

Veljača

Calendar wise Veljača is different from Zehmerija because it doesn't coincide with the other pagan holiday called Imbolc which is celebrated from dusk of 31st January until 2nd February which means that it comes at the end of Zehmerija, and we shouldn't disregard this information. Imbolc is the event when the Celtic triple goddess Brigid first appeared as a girl and made love with the young sun god, who was born on the shortest day in the year.

The difference of 12 days is perhaps due to the events i.e. mistakes in oral transfer of the tradition from one generation to the other. But, we shouldn't ignore the fact that Zehemerija, which lasts for 40 days, begins on December 21st and ends 1st of February. The name Veljača probable comes from Velja, Vela or Velika which alludes to the fact that the girl became a mother, and that's why she obtained the title grand/big, the one that brings forth life. Her symbol is the full moon. The goddess recovered from birth. God has strengthened and his warmth slowly permeates the earth and that's how the first signs of spring come about. His power grows continually, the light pierces darkness and the days become longer. The nature is slowly coming to life, which is reflected by the Bosnian calendar in the form of a fight between southern and northern wind. The goddess shows her blessings, the folk tradition claims that if the beginning of Veljača i.e. 14th, 15th and 16th of February is marked by precipitation of snow the year will be fruitful, especially for wheat, usually a symbol of the goddess.

Baba or Grandma

Baba, as the name suggests, symbolises an old lady. In the same way, the pagan holiday Ostare falls on the vernal equinox on the last day of a seven day cycle which is ruled by the Baba. With that we could claim that the last day symbolises the end of the life cycle. In this period the goddess mother conceived a child i.e. son who will be born on December 21st. Baba can be easily seen as a pregnant woman since the Bosnian term zbabna refers to a pregnant woman and the word babine refers to the traditional visit to the woman who gave birth. The folk description of Baba's character clearly alludes to classic symptoms that a woman has during childbirth - she is wilful, fickle, prone to frequent changes of mood... Due to such circumstances the goddess mother can sometimes steal fertility from humans and cause a dry year or a year marked by frequent storms.

During this period the goddess covers the earth with fertility, awakens it from its slumber, and the god grows and slowly reaches maturity. The hours of the day and night are equal, and light slowly triumphs over darkness. Farming activities start. The sun is in its northernmost point.

The end of Baba begins with a seven day period during which Did rules, the male principle, or better to say god whose mother is the goddess, he has now reached maturity and shares grace to the people, which is described in the folk tradition: "Did is merciful because during it one can start planting potatoes". The seed is placed in the earth which needs to supply the crop, fertility. The dominant influence of god is seen in the following months.

Jurjevo (Hidirlez)

In the pagan tradition Beltane symbolises the beginning of the light half of the year i.e. the arrival of summer. For the Celts that is the holiday dedicated to the god of light (sun) who has fire as its symbol. That's why each year during Jurjevo or Hidirlez in Bosnia early in the morning, before sun rise, a fire is lit in the yard as a sign of welcome to the sun which will appear in the east. Because of the strong monotheistic influence that ritual was interpreted as a defence from snakes, which allowed it to be hidden and freely practiced throughout the ages.

Aliđun

Lughnassan which lasts from 31st July until 2nd of August is the ancient holiday of harvest. In Bosnia during that period comes the Aliđun which is considered by the people to stand for the height of summer during which there is prosperity of fruits and grain. In the past the Bosnian people visited cult places in nature, known as dovišta, and those were the places where god was worshiped and celebrations were held followed with entertainment and food. With that the old pagan tradition was followed of praising the holiday of harvest and thankfulness for the yields of nature. Dovište Lastavica was until the middle of the twentieth century a cult place where Bosnian people would gather for 2nd of August to practice the ritual of slaughtering sheep, which is a tradition from the Illyrian times as many ethnologists claim, and it symbolised "sacrificing a virgin to the devil" i.e. a specific deity from whom one sought mercy and blessing in order to ensure fertility.

Kasum

Samhain (31.10-02.11), symbolises the end of the summer and the light part of the year after which winter and darkness arrive. Among the folk it is called Kasum, Turkish name for November. The name Kasum stems from Arabic which means "something which is shared". The end of the warm period and the beginning of winter is best supported by the folk saying: "Jurjevo brings a green leaf and Kasum white snow!" That is where the Bosnian folk calendar ends.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Wed Jul 03, 2013 10:48 pm

Neven (Calendula officinalis) is a plant that is often mentioned in folk songs where a girl uses love magic in order to conquer or punish a man because of unrequited love:


"It wasn't me Meho I swear on your life!

I only circled out your footprint in the ground

and there planted Neven.

As Neven can't grow without Earth

so you too will not be able to live without me"


In the past in Cazin it was forbidden to plant Neven in the house where there were adolescent females since it ruined their chance to get married. But, Neven didn't get a reputation of an unwonted plant because of this isolated case but quite the opposite. Because of its yellow colour in Bosnian witchcraft Neven was dedicated to the sun and that's why it carries the power of attraction for money and business luck and it was always planted in pots and kept on the window of a house or business office.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Wed Jul 03, 2013 10:49 pm

Fasligan (Ocimum basilicum): because of its pleasant and nice smell this plant has prophylactic powers in Bosnian witchcraft and is dedicated to the moon. The plant was brought to the Balkans by the Ottomans using its plants to wrap pieces of meat so it can retain its freshness for longer so it can be consumed. Fasligan has properties to chase away negative energy with its smell, such as spellbound eyes, and that's why it was traditionally harvested in autumn and stored in bouquets which were hung on house walls. If someone suspected that their children, livestock or bees were affected by spellbound eyes the plant would be set on fire and its smoke would be used to cover the person or animal. It was also used for home purification and a dry twig of Fasligan was crushed and spread across a stove in order for its smell to gradually spread across the house.

The folk belief is that a stem of Fasligan which is a year old has the power to heal sugreb. One would add a spoon of honey into a vessel filled with water and stir well, and then a stem of Fasligan would be dipped in water. A person suffering sugreb stands on a doorstep of a bathroom and sprinkles a part of its body affected by sugreb with Faslinga.

Still to this day it is believed that Fasligan planted amongst vegetables keeps the yield from spellbound eyes and defends it against snakes. Fasligan in Islamic tradition is connected to Hasan and Husein, two sons of Hazrat Fatima.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Wed Jul 03, 2013 10:49 pm

Oman (Inula helenium): this plant has a special place in Bosnian witchcraft because of its magical potential. Still today some Bosnian women try and dig up a root of Oman before the first sounding of the cuckoo bird in spring since at that time it has the strongest prophylactic powers, according to folk belief. After it is washed and cleaned from the rest of the dirt the root is cut with a knife into smaller pieces and then a needle is threaded through in order to hang them on a wall much easier.

With a few dry pieces placed on burning coal the house is covered in its smoke, especially the bathroom.

-In a house that has more female members the bathroom is a favourite gathering place of the devils and Jinn's, because they love to watch them take baths and comb their hair. That's why the bathroom should be covered in Oman's smoke each month to chase them away and to avoid inconveniences that they can cause to humans, Alija Ćerimović a stravarka from Velika Kladuša explained.

Leaves of Oman often replace paper when it comes to amulet manufacture which is intended to cure effect of black magic. The smaller leaves are used for children and the big ones for adults. After certain prayers are scribbled on it or symbols the paper is placed inside a pillow which the person will use until healed.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Mon Jul 15, 2013 10:43 pm

The hand of hazreti Fatima (Anastatica hierochuntica) is a plant which grows in the lands of the Middle East and which was often brought to Bosnia by the man and women on the pilgrimage to those lands. It was brought with the intent to help during childbirth. Namely, according to belief, if the labour prolonged, this plant would be submerged inside a vessel with water and the plant would swell after soaking up a part of the water. This was interpreted that the "hand" opened and that's why the pregnant woman was sprinkled with the water hinting at the fact that she too will "open" after that i.e. give birth.


Aradia: komentar modifikovan dana: Mon Jul 15, 2013 10:46 pm; prepravljeno ukupno 1 puta
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Mon Jul 15, 2013 10:43 pm

Odoljen (Valeriana officinalis) according to a legend in Bosnia and Herzegovina there were no men in the country until odoljen sprung up from the ground. Allegedly, before this miraculous plant appeared all male children would die after 24 hours. Odoljen is also called a plant of the faeries since they mentioned it often in their songs advising people to use it for medicinal purposes: "If a mother knew what odoljen is, she would never burry her son", etc. In Bosnian witchcraft the root of this plant is used to stimulate peace and harmony inside a household. When it is plucked out of the ground the root is cleaned and dried, then crushed into powder which is placed inside food and drinks in small quantities which is consumed by all members of the family. That's why odoljen is often called among the folk pomiruša. If a husband and wife get into a fight and don't communicate for a longer period, then the powder of the plant is mixed with the powder of miloduh (Hyssopus officinalis). Both powders are mixed with a spoon of honey and discretely offered to the husband and wife saying:"as the milodih mixed with odoljen and merged so shall N. and N. will merge and reconcile.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Mon Jul 15, 2013 10:44 pm

Okoločep (Mandragora officinalis): this plant whose root reminds us of a human body is in use since the ancient times. The plant contains poisonous ingredients to whom large magical powers were given. Bosnian witches used okoločep for various spells and the most famous one was when the root of the plant was submerged in water for some time, then a hole is punctured inside of it and a wife would look at her husband through it. This would eliminate any interest he had for other women.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Mon Jul 15, 2013 10:44 pm

Lindik (Gentiana cruciata): this is an old plant of Bosnian witchcraft. It was used to cure insomnia and love problems, since the old days, by putting it inside a pillow.


Šipak (Rosa Canina): according to folk belief in the fruit of šipak one could find a small white worm. Whether the worm is alive or dead it can be used to foretell how many children a woman will have in her marriage. The woman threads it through a sleeve of her clothes and places it inside a glass of water that she offers to her husband without telling him what she did. When the husband drinks the water the woman looks to see what has happened to the worm: if it stayed on the bottom of the glass then she will have only one baby with her husband, but if he drinks it with the water they will have more children.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Fri Jul 26, 2013 7:58 am

Invocation the famous Bosnian Fairy


This is a witch's ritual of invocation of the Bosnian fairy. During any night that has a full moon she undresses completely. She draws a protective circle in front of herself in which she will stand during the invocation. Once you enter, finish encircling closing it completely while you are inside. Then turn your face towards the east. Close your eyes and listen for the vibration of the circle in which you are. Let your breath follow the vibration of the circle. Once you succeed in doing this let out a voice from the depth of your chest and utter the ritual chant: "Apo Pantos Kakodaimonos"- allow the last letter to echo out of your mouth even when the invocation is finished. Place both of your palms on your stomach and breathe in with your entire lungs. Once your lungs are full, exhale, help yourself with your palms by pressing on your stomach. Do this a couple of times in order to cleanse your spirit and then slowly spread your arms in a swimming motion. Once they are spread, utter the following: "Apo Pantos Kakodaimonos". You will repeat the palm action on the stomach and breathe again, repeat the spreading of the arms and once done utter for the third time: "Apo Pantos Kakodaimonos".

You will then slowly spread your legs but you will not raise the feet from the ground. The feet need to slide on the ground. You will light a blue candle which shall be turned towards the east, then a black one turned towards north, a green one facing west and in the end a red one facing south. When you do this, you will utter a new oath, fully concentrated:" Ordao Alim". You will turn your body towards the east, spread your arms and utter:" In the name and power of the ghosts I'm calling you, my sisters from the east". You will pause shortly, then utter: "Vau". You will then turn towards the north and call the spiritual powers from the north. Then the invocation of the powers from the west follow, then the ones from the south, in the same manner. Once you do all of that you will be standing in the centre of the circle, close your eyes, cross your arms on your chest and utter: "Yod". This is repeated three times in a row, each time with a deeper and deeper concentration. Then, the moment when a Bosnian fairy appears in front of you outside the protective circle will come. She will be wearing a see through dress which will accentuate all of her curves. Unbridled golden hair will descend to her shoulders. She will be holding a book in her hand. She will ask you what is it that you want from her. You have to tell her in a loud voice what is it that you want to know, she will open her book, leaf through it and find the answer to your question. You mustn't record what she tells you, you need to remember it. And there is no secret that she cannot give you. And there is no problem that she cannot solve. And there is no future which she cannot see into. Thanking the power which appeared in the form of a Bosnian fairy, she will give you all you want. When the time for conversation is up she will tell you she needs to go. She will disappear. You mustn't leave the protective circle since the invoked power is too strong for the human body and you could die if you do it. Wait for the Bosnian fairy to disappear, then perform the ritual of dismissal but this time in a reverse order. Only when you have done that, you can delete a part of the circle with your hands, exit it, and then delete it completely.

After that wash your entire body with cold water, rinse your mouth with which you asked questions, ears that heard the answers and hands that lit the candles and participated in the ritual. The things that you wash don't wipe rather wait for the drops to dry by themselves. What you found out you mustn't tell to others, not even to the other witches, because if they want an answer from the fairy they will perform the ritual themselves. The answers will be given only to you and only you can use them in your witchcraft. Only after the invocation, if you are uncertain that you will remember what has been said to you and only after the water has dried from your skin, you can record the revelations in your witch's book which you will destroy before you die, leaving the human form.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Fri Jul 26, 2013 8:04 am

U bosanskom vještičarstvu postoji jedan tajni segment vračanja koji jako sliči na vudu praksu gdje se izrađuje lutka nad kojom se izvodi magijski ritual. No, razlog zbog kojeg ovaj vid magijskog djelovanja nikada nije zaživio u većem opsegu jeste taj što upotreba lutaka-žrtvi spada u domen crne magije te kako se ovaj sihir u čestom broju slučajeva može okrenuti i protiv same sihirbaze ili sihirbaza.

Zbog toga su rijetke one vračare ili vračari koji imaju dovoljno moći da uspješno izvedu ovaj ritual. U teoriji, lutku od zemlje lako je napravit i probosti iglama ali sa kakvim rezultatom? Nikakvim! Zato se od davnina upozorava da magija nije za svakoga i da samo rjetki i nadareni pojedinci mogu ovladati njenim silama.

Lutka se u prošlosti pravila od zemlje (gline) i u njenom sastavu se moralo naći praha ili zemlje iz otiska stope one osobe na koju se sihir pravio. Pošto bi se od zemlje načinila mala ljudska figurica koristile su se srebrne igle sa kojima su se probadali određeni djelovi tijela poput glave, srca, stomaka... Ovo ubadanje imalo je za cilj da se toj osobi oduzme volja za životom ali i izazovu neobjašnjivi bolovi. Danas se umjesto lutke može koristiti i fotografija žrtve.

Kako bi se lutka dodatno osnažila prskala se krvlju crne kokoške zbog vjerovanja kako upravo njena krv ima moć da privuče džine i šejtane koji će zadovoljni ponudom opsjednuti tijelo žrtve ili bar natjerati njenog džina pratioca (Karina) da djeluje protiv svog vlasnika.

Sihir sa lutkom svakako spada u domen jače crne magije i ako čaroliju izvede dovoljno okultno jaka osoba onda je takvu čaroliju vrlo teško eliminisati sa žrtve. No, zaštita od eventualnih napada magijskim lutkama vrši se najčešće čestim kađenjem kuće korjenom omana, suhim fasliganom, ćabarskom travom, sedefilom ili tamjanom. Izuzetno je djelotvorno kuću poprskati i sa crvenim vinskim octom, čija je moć ubitačna ne samo za ovu vrstu magije već i mnoge druge.

Pored ovakvog načina izrade zemljani lutaka kod bosanskih vještica praktikuje se još jedan zanimljiv ritual – naime, onda kada želi nekog muškarca učiniti vjernim tojest zauzdati njegovu spolnu moć prema drugim ženama vještica će se poslužiti njegovim donjim vešom. Gaće će omotati crnim koncem ali tako da od njih oblikuje figuru u obliku penisa. Dok to radi ponavljat će basmu čiji sadržaj govori o vezanju spolne moći. Zatim će, kako bi što bolje fiksirala figuru, omotati je ljepljivom trakom i time je čarolija gotova.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Fri Jul 26, 2013 8:11 am

Svete biljke bosanskog paganizma


Visibaba (Galanthus) od davnina se među bosanskim narodom  naziva Baba ili Starica čime se aludiralo na posvećenost ovog proljetnog cvijeta starom božanstvu Babi, antičkoj boginji Majci. Kod naših predaka Ilira ona se zvala Thana. U sačuvanim opisima rituala bosanskog vještičarstva sa ovom biljkom su stare žene izvodile ritual tjeranja pospanosti i proljetnjeg umora sa ljudi, posebno djece. Stručak visibabe bi držeći u ruci tri puta pronijele oko glave neke osobe, u smjeru kazaljke na satu, govoreći " Visibaba spava a ti ne spavaš, visibaba nujna a ti veseo!".



Božanski muž i pratilac Babe je Did ili Starac, antički bog sunca, kome je u sjeverozapadnom dijelu Bosne posvećena biljka istoimenog naziva Did or Silymarin. Biljka je bila tabuisana i sveta što dokazuje narodno vjerovanje da se ne smije gaziti nogom po njoj. Onom ko to učini stići će ga neka nesreća.


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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Fri Jul 26, 2013 8:19 am

Ljudska vrsta naseljavala je područje Balkana unazad milion godina, na toliku starost su procjenjeni ostaci čovjeka nađeni u pećinama Šandalj kod Pule u Hrvatskoj. Kroz svo to vrijeme naši preci su nosili u sebi osjećaj sigurnosti koju im je pružala pećina. Taj osjećaj postao je dio ljudskog gena.

U Bosni i Hercegovini poznate su brojne pećine koje su imale obredni i religijski značaj u različitim periodima istorije ovih prostora. Najstarije svete pećine su Badanj u kanjonu Bregave kod Stoca i pećina Pod lipom nedaleko od Kadinog sela na Sokolcu čiji kultni značaj predočuju crteži na stijeni. Crteži se nalaze i na ulazu u pećinu Ledenjaču kod Miljevine, na stijeni Pod pismom kod Višegrada, u Robovići kod Foče, u Djevojačkoj pećini kdo Kladnja te na ulazu u pećinu Vjetrenicu. Može se reći da prisutnost tih crteža u pećinama izdvaja Bosnu i Hercegovinu u odnosu na druge zemlje jugozapadnog Balkana. Od deset nalazišta sa pećinskim crtežima sedam je u Bosni a ostale tri nalaze se južnije, u Crnoj Gori i Albaniji, zemljama koje su u antičko doba činile glavne dijelove velikog ilirskog kraljestva. Već sama ta brojčana činjenica daje Bosni izuzetan kulturno-historijski značaj. Crteži u bosanskohercegovačkim pećinama su situirani od mlađeg paleolita, negdje oko 14 hiljada godina prije nove ere, do kasnog srednjeg vijeka. To upućuje na višestrukost vjerskih predanja pri čemu je sadržaj crteža samo simbolički jezik izražavanja. Bez poznavanja tog jezika nemoguće je imati jasan uvid u sveto bosansko podzemlje.

Mjesto koje naprosto buja dubokim značenjima za bosansku duhovnu istoriju je prostor oko kraljevskog grada Bobovca u srednjoj Bosni. I ovdje je duhovna tradicija duga što potvrđuju brojne nekropole stećaka. U Stijenama iznad samostana u Kraljevoj Sutjesci nalazi se dvanaest pećina. To su manje pećine u koju su se mogli skloniti jedan ili dva čovjeka. Dosadašnja istraživanja pokazala su njihov obredni značaj. Ljuba pećina ima vještački usječenu polukružnu klupu stipadium, poznatu još iz vremena kada su kršćani molili sjedeći u krugu. Od te klupe vodi jedna usječena staza do dva odmorišta ili dva mjesta za molitvu. Za tu stazu što se morfologije pećine tiče nema nikakve potrebe jer strane pećine nisu strme. Očigledno je da je i hod po toj stazi imao obrednu funkciju. Staza se na kraju završava pred jednom vrstom oltara, vještački probijenog prozora koji je veoma pravilno orijentiran prema istoku. Ko su bili ti ljudi koji su svoje molitve upućivali izlazećem suncu?

Na ovo pitanje teško je u cjelosti odgovoriti jer donekle zadovoljavajuće možemo pratiti povijest unazad sve do antičke Bosne (Bassania), no dalje od toga sve je još nedovoljno povijesno istraženo. No, svakako, nesporna činjenica je da kult boga sunca (Oganj, Ognjev Pir, Zvizdan) ima svoju genezu u bosanskim krajevima. Njegovi tragovi su prisutni kroz religijsku praksu Grka, Kelta i Rimljana, tojest naroda koji su se dolazili u neposredni kontakt sa Ilirima. Ne treba zaboraviti niti navesti uticaj drevne Persije kroz hramove boga Mitre koji su također smješteni unutar pećina, a jedan koji je najbolje očuvan u Bosni nalazi se u Jajcu i datira iz trećeg vijeka nove ere. Ni kada su Slaveni došli u sedmom vijeku nove ere i pomiješali se sa ilirskim plemenima nije nestao kult sunca već je samo promjenjeno njegovo ime u Svetovid, mada ni taj naziv nije bio jedini za boga sunca pošto nalazimo i na vrlo rašireno ime koje potječe direktno od naziva za zvijezdu - Zvizdan. Međutim, sva religijska praksa ovog kulta je i dalje ostala nepromjenjena i pod dominantnim uticajem antičkih tradicija, posebno one rimske i keltske. Najbolji dokaz toga je praksa održavanja raznih obrednih i takmičarskih igara što je bez svake sumnje rimskog porijekla. Od ritualnih igara potječe i toponim Igrište na brdu Hotijelj na planini Ratiš, kao i toponim Igralište na Trebavi.

Bogu sunca su u antičkoj ali i srednjovjekovnoj Bosni bila posvećena sva uzvišenja poput vrhova brda, brežuljaka ali i planina te su zato obredi bili vršeni na njima. Zbog toga mnogi planinski vrhovi i brda imaju u svom korijenu naziv Zvijezda ili Zvizda (zvizda, zvijezda, zvizdan), što je i danas narodni izraz u Bosni za sunce, poput brda Zvijezda iznad Malešića, zemljište Podzvizd na padinama Monja, lokalitet Zvijezda u Sladnoj na kojem se nalazi kultno mjesto Rahimin mezar. Iznad sela Priluk postoji brdo po imenu Sunčevo brdo. Ne treba zaboraviti navesti ni srednjovjekovni grad Podzvizd u Velikoj Kladuši koji je izgrađen na vrhu brda, itd.
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KomentarNaslov komentara: Re: Bosansko vještičarstvo   Today at 11:14 pm

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